Archive for the ‘wildlife’ Tag
My blog series on video for still photographers continues. It’s not been too popular, something I figured would happen because of the the nature of blogging. The blogosphere is quite biased toward still photography. Videos are very popular overall, but tend to be concentrated in other places on the web. It’s sad to say but most serious photographers still don’t think video is worth doing, I believe because they think the learning curve is too steep. But when you’re out shooting photos you’re also carrying a very good video camera around with you. So why not add movement and sound, even if the results aren’t likely to measure up to those of a pro videographer?
Last time we looked at landscape videos. Today let’s talk about critters, or animals. Specifically wildlife. Domestic animals have their own challenges. Video of wildlife is not easy. But it’s one of the few subjects that even non-video people think of shooting. The reason is that wildlife often do interesting things that are very hard to capture with still pictures. They also make fascinating sounds.
To view the videos don’t click the play button right away. First click the title at top left, then the play button.
Wild animals are generally shy and not easy to find. In modern times there is a two-edged sword. Plenty of roads and easy access make it a snap to go looking for wildlife. But the same development and population growth that gave us those roads also causes most species to decline in numbers. And the survivors normally become very shy and elusive.
A general truism is that the easiest critters to find also tend to have the fastest and most unpredictable movements. On the flip side, leaving aside rarity, if they’re very difficult to find they tend to be slow and easy to follow. Sloths come to mind. But it’s not always true that the slow ones are hard to find. It could be the animal is simply not afraid and instead looks on you as lunch, like the Komodo dragons below.
Location, Location. There are just a few main strategies that will make it easier to find wildlife. One is heading to protected areas. Parks and preserves concentrate the wildlife that we have chased out of most parts of the world. Some African parks even fence them in, which is actually to prevent them leaving the park where they can be poached. Of course the poachers just go into the park to kill, so the fences are relatively ineffective in that way. The fences do cut down on human-wildlife conflict, as well as reduce road-kill.
The Right Time. Another strategy is to go out looking when animals are most active. And I’m not just talking about dawn and dusk, when most (not all) animals are likely to be moving about. I’m also talking season. Fall is when many animals become active, and spring (or the start of wet season in Africa) is also good because many have their young and are thus forced to go out hunting, foraging or browsing to feed them. Also, the babies are irresistible.
‘Tis the Season. Seasonality also affects the ease with which you’ll be able to spot critters because of vegetation. For example going on safari in Africa during the dry season is popular because the general lack of green leafy growth on shrubs and trees of the savannah makes it easier to spot wildlife.
Some wildlife during a specific season will ignore their natural instinct to avoid humans and come right down into our towns. In late fall, the elk of several western U.S. National Parks (Rocky Mountain and Grand Tetons for e.g.) descend from higher country and congregate in gateway towns like Estes Park, Colorado.
Showing their Moves
Animals move (I know, duh). And they move apparently without warning and in unpredictable ways. But really not so unpredictable once you observe and learn about them.
Ready & Steady. Be ever ready to move the camera instantly. It’s a mindset that is applicable to still photos of critters as well. Your positioning and stance needs to be such that you can swivel or pivot easily. I liken it to when I was a kid being coached on how to take a lead in baseball. You also need a way to smooth out your motions, covered in a previous post: Video on the Move.
Observe. The most important thing in this regard is careful observation. The more you learn about a species, the better you’ll be able to predict its movements. But avoid the trap even experienced people fall into. You can know the species but not the individual. Like us, each one is different and unique, in ways that seem quite subtle to us (but presumably not them). So even if you know the species well, a little pre-shooting observation goes a long way.
If you record the voices of animals (and why wouldn’t you have sound recording turned on?), you can be sure that even the chattiest of them will choose the time after you press the record button to give you the silent treatment.
Observe some More. Same goes for sound as for video: if you have the opportunity, observe the animal for awhile before you press record. You’ll gain a sense of the periodicity or patterns inherent in the animal’s vocalizations. The keys, as it is in general nature observation and photography, is patience and timing.
Examples. At Yellowstone Park I went out in the very early morning to film the buffalo above. On a previous morning I’d seen them crossing the Lamar River and figured they were sleeping on one side and eating breakfast on the other, with a bath in between. Also the early hour meant only one other tourist, and he stayed up by the road. A shotgun mic helped to capture their voices. Below, on the Kafue River in Africa, I couldn’t get close enough to these hippos but their voices carry so well across the water that I didn’t need the shotgun mic.
That’s it for this Friday, thanks for looking. Have an excellent weekend and don’t forget to press that record button!
Addendum: Dry Run
Try is a dry run from time to time. For example you could walk out into a forest in the wee hours to hear the dawn chorus of birdsong. Try leaving your camera in the bag, at least at first. The goal is to find the best locations and to simply listen. Note when certain bird species begin and end (it’s strictly regimented), along with how long the singing lasts. If you go out several times you’ll begin to learn how the weather affects timing along with other features of bird vocalization and behaviour.
Believe it or not I did this for a job one summer. I surveyed forests in the Pacific NW proposed for logging, looking for evidence of use by endangered bird species. Since most of the areas lacked trails, I would go out during the day with some white surveyor’s tape. I’d find a good spot to observe from and then, on the way back to the road, flag a route by every so often tying a piece of surveyor’s tape around a branch.
Then in the morning, at “zero dark thirty” I returned with my flashlights (I recommend two, a headlamp and a strong hand-held) and followed the trail in. White shows up in the dark a lot better than orange. On the hike out after sunrise I’d remove the surveyor’s tape. This is, by the way, also a good way to find and shoot out-of-the-way places at dawn, your “secret” spots that are away from roads and trails.
I took a break last week from Friday Foto Talk. I hope everybody’s new year is starting off right. I’m going to conclude the series on video for still photographers with two or three posts focusing on common subjects that you might want to film, with tips on how to make the most of those opportunities. The first one is, you guessed it, landscapes. By the way, there’s nothing wrong with using the verb ‘to film’ when you’re talking about digital video. Is there? To view the videos here, first click on the title at top left. Then you can press the play button.
The Feel of a Landscape
Have you ever been out photographing a beautiful landscape, perhaps with a stream flowing through the scene or a breeze sighing through the trees, and wondered what it would be like for your viewers to hear and feel what you are hearing and feeling? How do you shoot a video of a landscape and not bore people? Nothing is really happening after all. Or is it? Although there is very little going on in the video at top, I think the intense dawn chorus of birdsong gives a strong feel of watching the sun rise over the Klamath wetlands of Oregon.
THE BASICS & BEYOND
It’s probably best to start out filming landscapes by putting the camera on a tripod and using a medium to narrow aperture focus about 1/3 of the way into the scene. It’s easy to screw up a video by leaving important areas out of focus. Now if you have close foreground in your video, you should not only focus closer, right on the foreground or slightly beyond it, you should also go with a wide angle lens and use a narrow aperture.
But if you’re trying to transmit the feel of the scene to your viewers, the procedure I just mentioned may not be the only thing you try. For me the reason to do videos is to give viewers an idea of what it’s like to stand where I’m standing and see what I’m seeing. It’s also one of my main goals in shooting stills, by the way. First of all, don’t worry so much about the boredom factor. For landscapes you’ll be trying to strike a balance between capturing the mood and boring your viewers, but don’t let that hamstring your creativity. Definitely don’t limit your video to when there’s a lot of action. My opinion is there are very few situations in still photography that cannot be successfully filmed.
COMPOSITION IS STILL KING (BUT AUDIO IS QUEEN)
Compose your video to take advantage of any movement in the scene, but make sure the movement is in keeping with the scene’s mood. For example you could try getting low and close to a moving foreground element (waving grass or moving water, for e.g.). Despite what I just said about focus, you could even leave your foreground out of focus if it doesn’t take up too much of the frame. It’s not quite as distracting to see out of focus foreground in a video as it is in a still photo. If it’s moving we don’t seem to mind as much if it’s blurry. Experiment with this.
Don’t forget audio. Sound is an important factor when trying to impart mood in your video. For native audio, note what part of the soundscape you want to capture and use the appropriate mic, if you have one. Or adjust position, recording short clips and listening back to them until you pick up the sound nicely. In the video below, which was shot with a fisheye lens so you can see both up- and down-stream at Zion’s Subway slot canyon, it didn’t matter what mic I used. Because of the closed-in canyon, the sound of moving water dominates everything.
We looked at wind already (check out this post), but it is part of nature so is a near constant concern. Use a windsock but realize the wind will still cause issues. Position and shelter the mic to minimize it. If it’s whistling around some object, you could get close and deliberately record instead of avoiding it. Or consider a video with audio turned off, and add separately recorded sound or music later. Whatever it takes to create the mood.
GET A MOVE ON!
A lot of good video can be done while locked down on a tripod if you select your subjects and compositions carefully. But moving the camera is inevitable. If you want to pan through a scene, check out the tips in this post. What I didn’t mention there is creating a sense of the scene with camera movement. For example, panning horizontally on a tripod allows you to change the view by pivoting the camera. But that can end up giving your viewers a vague sense of being disconnected from the scene.
By moving the camera itself you can give viewers a sense of moving through the scene. Moving in an arc is good when you’ve got focus locked on an important subject and want to keep it in focus. Just remember to either use a wide-angle lens with careful hand-held technique, or use some means of stabilizing & smoothing the movement (wearable stabilizer, rail, etc.). Jumpiness distracts.
The best way to find a video that captures the mood of a landscape is to try different things. Mix things up. Panning vertically in a forest is worth trying. In the video below I was walking through a Colorado aspen grove on a breezy morning and, despite the fact I knew the sound would include some wind interference, wanted to capture the quaking part of quaking aspen. It’s a lesson in not letting worries about the quality worry you too much. The wind only messed up the sound for a brief moment.
One final example: if you are lucky enough to have an interesting subject in the scene, you could try breaking a rule. Normally videos require slow, steady camera movement. But how about throwing in a sudden jump-over? Swing quickly over to that moose, or even a friend caught in a compelling action. You need to keep it steady once you’re there; that is unless it’s a dangerous critter, in which case viewers expect a little jumpiness. The point is to avoid getting stuck into some imagined correct way to do things.
Next time we will take a beginner’s look at the wonderful world of wildlife videography. And speaking of that, have a wonderful weekend!
The series on getting started in video is almost complete. Last week’s post provided general tips on recording sound during video capture. Let’s dive deeper into the subject of sound by looking at a few of the more subtle ways that it can mess up your video, and some solutions to help make sure that doesn’t happen.
The Ear vs. the Microphone
You’ll find that the way you process sound is different than what is recorded by a microphone.
- Your ears are placed perfectly for detecting sound all about you. But with those flaps they’re biased toward the front. A mic. (or two for stereo) can be placed anywhere. But if it’s a shotgun mic it will mostly pick up those sounds in the direction you point the mic. Omnidirectional mics are the opposite (see below). By the way, I saw a guy on the web who records sound using a stereo mic setup where the mics are worn like headphones and are even shaped somewhat like ears. His goal is to record as close to what he hears as possible. The rather funny-looking stereo mic setup was for sale, as long as you don’t mind some strange looks!
- It’s not just your ears that cause microphones to record sounds differently than the way you hear them. Your brain is involved too. Thanks to evolution you can pick up distant sounds and magnify them. And simultaneously in some cases, you have the ability to filter out loud, nearby sounds in order to better hear a faint, more important one. These natural skills allowed our ancestors to hear the sounds of a predator while near a stream. Of course mics don’t do any of this. An omnidirectional mic, for example, captures everything around it without bias. The louder the sound the more prominent it will be in the recording.
- Why is there a significant difference between the way your eyes and your camera captures images? The key difference maker is the brain. Just as it does with your eyes, your brain works in concert with your ears to weight various sounds differently. The brain also has the ability to make your head turn, like an antenna dish, to effectively corral those sounds you want to hear and at least partly block those you don’t.
- Let’s take an example. It took me awhile to realize that recording next to a stream is a mixed blessing. If your goal is to record the sound of the water it’s usually fine. But if you want ambient sound that includes birds, etc., the water can overwhelm everything else. Even when you’re going for the sound of the water, being close can make it sound too loud and harsh.
Just as you learned to pay attention to subtle features of the light, you should start tuning your ears to subtle differences in volume, tone, bass notes vs. treble, etc. But at the same time you need to factor in the above: your brain filters and evens things out while the microphone records actual sounds, without bias. Here are a few tips:
- Move closer to that interesting but not very loud sound even if you can hear it just fine. The old piece of photography advice, “if your photos aren’t good enough, you’re not close enough” applies to sound as well.
- But depending on what mic you’re using don’t get too close! Using the example above, recording next to a loud stream (a waterfall perhaps), and if you’re using a shotgun mic, avoid pointing it right at the water. Try pointing it an angle or even directly away from the sound.
- Adjust position to minimize loud sounds when you’re seeking balance and want to pick up more subtle sounds in the background, even if your ear hears a good balance. Simply putting a tree or rock outcrop between you and a sound source that is too loud can make all the difference. You can also use landscape features, such as rock walls, curved hillsides, etc. to focus and magnify key parts of the soundscape.
- If you get more involved with audio, field gear can help greatly with all of the above. For distant &/or faint sounds, a high-quality shotgun mic, along with parabolic reflectors, can make a huge difference.
- For the ability to adjust the balance of tones, bringing out the sounds you want and minimizing those you don’t, consider upgrading to a system that replaces your camera’s sound-recording. Basically a portable soundboard that mounts beneath your camera, it will allow you to adjust and equalize tones. These systems are often used along with headphones. They allow you to monitor the way the sound is actually being recorded, as opposed to the way you hear it.
- You could also choose separate sound recording using a portable digital recorder. You’ll have to sync the sound to your video later, but it allows you to focus on video and audio separately, thus doing a good job on both.
- Remember: all of this extra gear will only add to, not replace, what you can do in the field by changing position and using natural features, along with choosing the appropriate mic to use.
That’s all for now. I hope you are getting more comfortable with the idea of doing videos, even if you’re an unrepentant still photographer. Don’t be shy about asking questions or giving your two cents. Have a fantastic weekend and happy shooting!
Chaco Canyon from Penasco Blanco, an out-of-the-way ruin requiring a hike to get to. Being here at sunset means risking a ticket (see text below)
Last week I listed a few likes and dislikes of visiting and photographing in national parks. All subjective of course. When I say I dislike something, it means I dislike only the one thing. Please don’t try to read anything more into it. For example, in general I dislike crowds. Not at ballgames, rock concerts, etc.; they’re a part of the experience at such places. I certainly don’t begrudge the many people who love our parks and visit them. I recognize that if crowds at parks are a problem then I’m a part of that problem. It’s just that I can’t enjoy any natural area if it’s too crowded.
The Yellowstone River meanders through Hayden Valley. While the road through here is very busy, you can hike cross-country for different views and few people.
Pet Peeve #1: Littering
And speaking of crowds in parks, it can lead to other problems. One of them, a big pet peeve of mine, is littering. Strangely, the Park Service seems to do little to combat this problem. For example the publication you get upon entering any park spends a lot of time warning of the dangers of bears, falling rocks or whatever hazards exist naturally (and obviously) in parks. Especially bears, they seem completely fixated on bears. But they say nothing about littering. The park newsletter is the obvious place to mention the fact that littering is illegal and subject to a fine.
I believe the Park Service thinks the problem was beaten years ago. Through the 1970s Americans began to litter a lot less. We became much more environmentally aware in that era. And increasing fines for littering didn’t hurt either. But those days are gone now. The younger generations tend to be less environmentally conscious than their parents. In other words parents have dropped the ball in this way like so many others.
In addition (warning: this is going to sound politically incorrect), the immigrant population has been increasing. While that isn’t a bad thing of course, many of them come from places where littering is socially acceptable (though that is now changing in certain parts of the world). These people simply need to be educated, and for those of us who already know, we need to be reminded. If anyone doesn’t get the message, break out the fines. Money talks, in any language. But the NPS isn’t doing any of this. As a result we all get to see plastic water bottles and toilet paper strewn about in our national parks.
If Death Valley gets busy you can always head over to adjacent Panamint Valley. Also within the park, it’s a great place to look for feral burros.
Sometimes it pays to be short: A small passageway in Lehman Caves, Great Basin National Park, Nevada.
Pet Peeve #2: The Ugly Photographer
Notice I haven’t mentioned the sorts of behaviours that get spread all over social media these days: the idiots (let’s be honest) who approach dangerous animals or enter environmentally sensitive areas to get selfies. While these kinds of things are certainly damaging (not least to our collective self-respect!), I think they are still pretty rare. So I don’t join in the public shaming on social media. But the desire to document everything shows no signs of slowing, resulting in problems more subtle and insidious than charging buffalo.
WILDLIFE & THE GOLDEN RULE
I’d like to throw light on something I’ve observed with increasing frequency in parks. While not as outright stupid as the tourist who wants a picture of his child next to a wild animal, it’s nevertheless very thoughtless and selfish. First of all, despite our frequent cluelessness, the great majority of animals do not react to us aggressively at all. The bad behaviour of photographers, whether they’re slinging a huge lens or holding up a cell phone, is almost always ignored. But think about it. We can still make life very difficult for the beings who call our parks home.
Every single day in the parks, wild animals are forced to endure a never-ending procession of tourists who think it’s okay to completely disrupt their lives to get photos. For example, when bison or elk try to cross the road at Yellowstone, usually to access water or food, tourists routinely block the way in order to get photos. I’ve seen the same thing done to black bears at the Great Smokies. I’ve tried to get people to see what they’re doing, but have only gotten angry retorts. Nobody likes to be called out no matter how diplomatic you try to be.
I spent quite awhile near this young bull elk, letting him get comfortable with me. He was laying down, resting in the forest just a few yards from the road but invisible to all the passing people.
I know the good people who read this blog wouldn’t dream of doing this, but it’s easy to get caught up in the moment. Put yourself in the animals’ places and consider how you’d respond to a stranger barging into your home, blocking your way to the frig while you’re trying to get something to eat or drink. And just to get a stupid picture. I don’t mean to rant or lecture too much. Most people are conscientious. They just need to hit the pause button once in awhile and think about what they’re doing.
Next week we’ll conclude this little series on the two sides of national parks. Take it easy out there and shoot mellow.
Grand Canyon is the 2nd most visited park in the country, but if you’re willing to drive a long gravel road, the north rim’s Toroweap area is much quieter.
A recent shot from a lovely place in the Colorado Rockies called Bluebird Lake.
Let’s follow-up on the topic point of view (POV) and in particular last week’s Foto Talk on ethics and legality. As you begin to dream up and try a wide variety of positions to shoot from, you’ll find yourself getting more deeply involved with it. It’s what photography is all about. But before you get lost in the moment, take another moment to consider the following cautionary tales. The phrase “safety comes first”, after all, applies to photography like it does to any undertaking.
Flowers grow on a lichen-covered rock outcrop at 11,000 feet in Rocky Mtn. National Park, Colorado.
POV & Safety: People
- Property Territoriality. I mentioned last week how you might run afoul of property owners or officials. Yet anybody could take strong exception to your shooting near their “territory”. One time in a lonely rural area I was getting some sunset shots. Not far away was a farm house. I was on the side of a county road, not even pointing the camera directly at the house. But driving away in the gathering dark I noticed a guy following me in a pickup. He continued for quite awhile until I stopped, got out and challenged him (something I don’t recommend). Later I was pulled over by a cop (the guy had called) and had to explain who I was and what I was doing.
While shooting this barn in central Oregon I was approached by the owner who told me I was on a private road. I was honest about my reason for being there and he let me shoot away.
- Compositional Territoriality. It’s not always property owners who have issues. You can also get in the way of other photographers too. Although I generally shy away from popular locations and subjects and so don’t run into many others, on occasion I have inadvertently stepped in the way of a fellow shooter. Some of these guys (they’re always guys) are extremely possessive of “their” compositions (see bottom image). I don’t know why but they seem to like shining flashlights or (worse) laser pointers at me in a sort of passive aggressive way. Weird.
- See Below for more on staying safe in populated areas.
Dusk falls at Bluebird Lake. I balanced on the edge for this shot ’cause I wanted a POV highlighting the metamorphic rock textures in the foreground.
- Stay Cool. I probably don’t have to tell you that situations involving angry people can spin quickly out of control. But if you remain relatively calm and listen to what the person is saying you’ll thank yourself later.
- Be Honest. It’s always best to state honestly what you’re doing. If you try to obfuscate in any way you’ll just put yourself under suspicion.
- Be Sensitive but Firm. I try to strike a balance between (1) being sensitive to both the law and to people’s concerns and (2) being firm about my right to be on public property and my right to use (especially to keep!) my camera gear.
- Know when to Walk Away. I don’t always handle people the way I later realize I should have. The main thing I’ve done wrong in the past is to not apologize and walk away when someone gets very angry. Apologize even if you don’t think you’re in the right. If they won’t let you go and want to get physical, just pull out your phone and dial 911.
St. Vrain River, Colorado.
POV & Safety: Animals
People are obviously the biggest danger, but other animals can be dangerous as well (see what I did there?). How close to that buffalo do you really need to be? Seems we read on a weekly basis about tourists getting hurt when they get too near buffalo or other wild animals in Yellowstone Park. And it’s not just tourists. Pro photographers with not enough wildlife experience or common sense get too close. Don’t take domestic animals too lightly either. For example I give Brahma bulls more respect than most wild animals.
This large African elephant in the Okavango Delta gave us a fright when he bluff charged.
- Learn. Start by reading about your animal subjects, paying particular attention to body language, territorial behaviours, “comfort distances” and related info. But remember to take anything you learn on the internet or in books as a general guide only. Animals are like people. It’s not just that each individual is unique; it’s that each situation you find it in is unique. Animal behaviour depends not just on instinct but on the individual and its circumstances.
- Observe. There is no substitute for careful observation of body language while you’re anywhere near a potentially dangerous animal. Don’t approach until you take a good look. For example, ears back is a common warning sign with prey animals. For predators you may get ears back if they’re feeling defensive, or ears forward and alert if they’re on the hunt.
- Go Slow. Approaching slowly will not only avoid frightening the animal and blowing your chances, it will also give the animal a chance to get comfortable and keep it from becoming defensive. It will also allow you more time to observe your quarry and stop if a behaviour indicates you should. As a rule you should never turn your back on or run from any potentially dangerous animal. There are exceptions to this however.
I’ve posted this one before, but it shows so well how animals use body language to warn you about getting any closer (arched tail).
POV & the Blinder Effect
- The blinder effect is when you are dialed in to what you’re doing, changing positions and POV. Our minds are on the shot, not on possible dangers.
- As photographers we are more vulnerable than the average person. To see why, let’s take mountain lions as an example. If you’re a smaller man or a woman you need to be particularly careful in cougar country. But even if you’re big and ugly like me, think about it. As a photographer we often choose to shoot near dawn or dusk when the light is good. And that’s when most predators are active. Further, we tend to crouch down (making ourselves smaller) with faces pressed to the camera instead of directed toward danger.
- In populated areas, simply substitute the word mugger for cougar and the situations are perfectly parallel.
It’s not just when they’re the subjects that wildlife is a potential danger. On a couple occasions I’ve been so focused on a landscape shot that I allowed a curious animal to approach me quite closely. Depending of course on the animal and the situation, this could be either a pleasant surprise or a dangerous development. For example cougars inhabit even populated areas. And don’t forget venomous snakes. Adjusting POV often means walking through tall grass or thick brush.
This Komodo dragon on the island of Rinca, Indonesia snuck up on me while I was photographing a bigger one. It’s a bit chilling to be stalked.
- Urban Areas: In cities, wandering into a sketchy neighborhood near dark is easy to do when chasing a shot. I did it in Kuala Lumpur once while trying for a photo of the Petronas Towers at blue hour (dusk). That is, until a kind local noticed and let me know I was putting myself (or at least all my camera gear) at risk. I got a shot but it wasn’t right, so next night I did something different (see image).
Not as famous as the Petronas Towers, but still worth shooting, the Kuala Lumpur Tower & the perfect POV on my hotel’s roof. I don’t think I was supposed to be there.
- Remote Areas: One reason I like wilderness areas is because there’s normally no need to worry about other people. But the other side of that coin means you are more vulnerable if a bad character does appear. Several years ago I was in Colombia on a hike through a jungle known for its bandits. I stopped to watch some very cool-looking monkeys. There was a small noise and I turned around to find that two young native guys with machetes had caught right up to me. Chills went down my spine. But happily they turned out to be friendly and we ended up hiking together. One even climbed a tree and used his machete to cut a huge fresh papaya down (yummy!).
For the blinder effect there is really just one solution: Be Aware of your Surroundings. Take your face away from the camera and look around from time to time, particularly in lonely places.
I feel like I’ve sounded a tone that’s a bit too paranoid. We all know what can result from too much fear: paralysis. In fact you’ll probably never run into most of these situations. But they are worth being ready for in the same way that it’s wise to prepare for a natural disaster that’ll probably never happen. So be careful out there, just not too careful. Shoot with as many POVs as you think is necessary. Practice awareness and common sense and all will be well. Have a great weekend!
At Utah’s Deadhorse Point, a popular spot, I showed up very early (rare for me). While shooting this gnarled juniper a guy who arrived after me but apparently wanted the same shot circled around trying various ways to hurry me.
Sunrise over Brainard Lake, Rocky Mountain Front Range, Colorado.
I’ve been stranded with vehicle problems lately but it has not been all bad. I’m in a beautiful place, near to Rocky Mountain National Park. Now this is not the most out of the way place I’ve ever been. In fact Rocky (the name locals use for the park) is now the third most popular national park in the country, visited by more people than either Yosemite and Yellowstone. So it can get very crowded, especially on summer weekends.
Besides visiting during the week, there are a few ways to avoid most crowds at Rocky. One is to go over to the west side of the park, in particular staying away from Bear Lake, the most popular destination within the park. Another is to go hiking but to summon the energy and continue on up the trails, past popular destinations in order to get more solitude.
But an alternative is simply to not enter the park at all. The Rocky Mountains don’t stop at the park boundary and public land (mostly Forest Service) extends in three directions. I’ve been checking out a few nearby natural areas recently, mostly to see something different. As I suspected most of these places are also very crowded on weekends. But since they mostly attract locals, they tend to be quieter than the park during the week.
It’s peaceful along the Colorado River in the western part of Rocky Mtn. National Park.
Brainard Lake Recreation Area
One place that is hard not to be impressed with is Brainard Lake Recreation Area. It’s only 35 miles south of Rocky, about an hour’s drive down the Peak to Peak Highway. A busy campground (get there early or reserve a spot) is located conveniently just below Brainard Lake itself. Several small picnic areas are scattered about, and fishing is popular. In recent years a population of moose has moved in. Popular with wildlife photographers, these are Shiras moose, the smallest subspecies. Although definitely smaller than Alaskan moose, bulls can reach 1200 pounds and are dangerous in the fall rut.
The area is also famous for its hiking. Several trails head up into the Indian Peaks Wilderness to beautiful alpine lakes. Energetic hikers and peak baggers continue up the spectacular valleys past glacial tarns and on up to rugged granitic mountains. The hikes tend to be strenuous because of the altitude, but distances are not great. For example I hiked to Blue Lake and it was just 5 miles round-trip with 900 feet elevation gain.
Colorado Columbine on one of the trails of Brainard Lake Recreation Area.
Another amazing hike I can personally recommend is Isabelle Glacier. In 8 3/4 miles you gain 1750 feet. This takes you past two lakes, including lovely Lake Isabelle. Hike beyond this lake and you’ll drop most other hikers, passing flower meadows and a high tarn before climbing into a huge amphitheater surrounded by soaring peaks, snowfields and waterfalls.
Lake Isabelle and Indian Peaks, Colorado.
A family of ducks paddles across Red Rock Lake.
But several of the images here are from the lowest of the area’s lakes, and my favorite. Red Rock Lake lies on the road to Brainard Lake, and most people blow right by it, in a hurry to get to their destinations. It’s a peaceful spot that attracts waterfowl, and has a nice view of Indian Peaks from the east shore. It’s quite a photogenic place, despite not being as spectacular as the high, hike-in lakes, which are closer to the peaks. But because of the red rocks and a partial cover of water lilies I think Red Rock is more visually interesting than many of the area’s lakes.
Thanks for reading, have a great week, and happy shooting!
Beautiful Red Rock Lake, Colorado.
For this recent shot of a granite-lined pool on Colorado’s St. Vrain River, I went for a downward-looking POV.
After the recent posts on point of view (POV), I realized I had been taking it for granted. It’s the kind of thing that experienced photographers model naturally when shooting. But they gloss over it and don’t talk about it enough when teaching. Novices tend to be busy figuring out their cameras, exposure, where to focus, etc. As a result they may not pick up on how important POV is until later on.
But here’s a simple fact: the sooner you learn to quickly and purposefully adjust your point of view, the faster your photography will improve. Why is POV so important? Because it’s all about finding the best compositions. And in photography composition means everything. So be sure to check out POV Part I and POV Part II. This week let’s take a step back and look at some consequences of changing POV in the quest for the perfect shot.
Last Wednesday featured a male mountain bluebird. Here is his mate near their nest at 11,800 feet (3600 m.) up in the Colorado Rockies.
An image whose point of view is of another creature’s point of view (note what the elk is looking at).
Okay. You got the message of the last two Foto Talks. You’re moving around with purpose, shifting POV in all directions, shooting away. You’re well on your way to better photos. And maybe on your way to trouble as well. Here are some quandaries common to photography, along with ideas on how to handle them.
POV & Ethics
- Be Kind to the Environment. Moving closer to your foreground subject could mean trampling delicate vegetation or disturbing other living things (stirring up sediment in a sensitive aquatic environment, for example). Just last night I saw a portrait photographer trampling flowers while shooting a family, and this was inside a national park.
- Be Kind to Fellow Photographers. In places with other photographers around, working a subject with many different POVs (normally laudable) could result in you selfishly “hogging” the subject (next post will have the counterpoint to this).
- Strike a Balance. While a strong commitment to getting the shot is necessary to get good images, it’s also important to avoid being insensitive or rude.
- Be Aware of where you are and of those around you at all times. I’m not saying to take your mind off the photography or to worry about what others think of you lying there on your belly. But at the same time, be conscious about damaging sensitive habitats. Think about the critters, including your fellow photographers.
The subalpine flower meadows of Mt. Rainier, Washington are a place where you should be careful where you step.
POV, Legality & Permission
Are you going to hop that fence to get closer to your subject, grab a quick shot and get back before the property owner comes along? What about entering a questionable area in some foreign country? Laws are different there and enforced in different ways. Do you really want the shot that badly?
- Example 1: Unexpected problem in a Foreign Land. In a busy public area in Malawi I was shooting a cute little baby with big brown eyes, after asking her mom. The unexpected result: a policeman became suspicious, approached me and wanted to take my camera away. I had to do some quick talking, show them my pictures, and get the mom to back me up.
- Example 2: Dangerous & Illegal POV turns out OK. Another example is the image below, which is a few years old. I had driven past this spot with a fantastic view of Portland, Oregon many times. But I could never see a safe way to shoot there. For the same reason that makes the spot such a great POV: it’s on a busy, curving freeway ramp that swings out over the Willamette River.
But one day I noticed a spot where the ramp widened, with just enough room to park. It even had a curb for a bit of protection from traffic. It required a quick maneuver in the heavy traffic. The first time I did it was on my motorcycle, which made it quite easy. But I knew it was illegal to be there so didn’t stay long. I quickly set up my tripod and captured the shot I had been after.
Portland, Oregon is a town of bridges, like the Steele Bridge here spanning the Willamette River at dusk with a crescent moon.
SOLUTIONS: Asking vs. Apologizing
You’ve probably heard the old expression “better to ask forgiveness than beg permission”. Sounds good, right? But in the real world you have to weigh risks and be able to handle things diplomatically if you get caught or challenged. Here are a few examples:
- In villages and on treks I’ve seen photographers surround some poor kid doing something cute, with no thought of whether it was okay with the parents. That is horrible ugly tourist behavior. With kids you should almost always ask the parents first. Or be ready to be apologetic and honest about your motivations.
- For sensitive areas (political or military), I would avoid them outright. If you insist, always ask first.
- Photographing someone’s property (including their bodies) also begs you to ask first. But we’re entering a gray area. If you make it a rule to always ask, you may not get many good shots. You could miss the light, for example. Then in reality you’re asking to return another time.
- One more example: on a city street photographing people. Unless you shoot first, you’ll probably miss that great candid shot. For some subjects, however, it doesn’t matter, street performers for example. So you may as well ask first.
One of my favorite child images, a Sherpa boy waiting for his dad to come home. I didn’t ask permission first, but in a part of Nepal away from tourists, I was willing to risk it. I smiled a lot and his mom invited me in for tea.
SOLUTIONS: The Quandary
The last two points above illustrate a quandary unique to photography. Do you forego the quick shot and engage first, or do you strike while the iron is hot and talk later? Each of us have to handle it in our own way, realizing that each situation is different. Ultimately we need to accept responsibility for our actions. It’s safest to ask permission first, especially if there is the slightest doubt. But whatever happens, it’s important to be honest and pleasant.
Okay that’s it for now. Next week we’ll look at other issues to be aware of when actively changing your point of view. Happy shooting and have a wonderful weekend!
Sunset over the high tundra of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado.
In a forest I often find stumps or fallen logs to stand on, raising POV. Like atop this fallen giant in California’s redwoods.
This is the second of two parts on Point of View (POV) in photography. Last week Part I looked at general position and angle related to subject and background. This time I’ll focus on what most people think of when they think of POV: height.
Point of View: Height
Let’s go back to when we first picked up a camera. What did we do? We shot from a standing position. Then when we got hold of a tripod we extended the legs and again shot from eye level. This isn’t surprising; it’s almost always the way we experience the world.
Unfortunately, it quickly becomes boring to see picture after picture from this same position. You start to wonder what it’s like to see things the way the world’s shortest man or the tallest woman sees them. Going further, what is it like to see the world from an eagle’s point of view, or an insect’s? There’s only one way to find out. Get up or get down and shoot! It’s the other major way to change point of view: change the camera height.
Long’s Peak, shot last night from the highest point I could find on Trail Ridge Road, Rocky Mtn. National Park, Colorado.
The easiest way to change height POV is to lower it. You go down on one knee, assuming the classic shooter’s pose. Or you squat, getting a bit lower. Or you lay right down on your belly with elbows propped in a sort of tripod. When you’re using an actual tripod and want to go lower, you either change the length of the legs or spread them more widely.
You can also remove the center column or otherwise rig up the tripod to go even lower. For ultra low POVs you can just plop the camera right down on the ground. Or you use a beanbag, your camera bag, or a piece of clothing for cushioning, giving you a POV very near ground level.
This small cholla cactus I wanted to highlight against the stormy sky of Death Valley, California. So I used a very low POV, a foot or two above the ground.
When you lower your point of view a few interesting things happen:
- Foregrounds draw nearer and get bigger. For compositions with close foreground elements, lowering POV brings them even closer (see image above). If you want everything in focus front to back you may have to stop down to a smaller aperture (higher f/number). Or you can take more than one shot and focus stack the images.
- Foregrounds change position. Lowering your POV also changes how foreground subjects are set off against the background. As you go down, close foreground elements rise in proportion. This can set them against the sky instead of the landscape and even put them in silhouette. You also need to be aware of foreground elements blocking important parts of the background. Make small shifts in position to compensate and get the composition just right.
- Backgrounds recede. This depends on how wide your lens is, but when you lower the camera the background can lose prominence in favor of foreground elements. Even tall mountains tend to shrink. Not as much as when you change from a 50 mm. to a 17 mm. focal length, for example, but the effect is similar. It’s another way that lowering POV helps to emphasize foreground elements in an image, by de-emphasizing the background.
For these two elk this morning, I got low to set them against the rising sun. Compare with image below.
Another recent elk from Rocky Mtn. National Park. But this time from a higher POV gained by walking uphill.
Another way to vary height POV is to raise the camera, so you’re looking down on your subject. It’s more challenging than lowering the camera, but it’s often more interesting to try. And it’s more satisfying when it turns out well. That’s because, as hard as it can seem to get very low (especially as we get older), going up usually requires the most effort and imagination. You need to either climb with your gear up to some perch or do some outside-the-box thinking, or both.
Here are some ideas:
- Climb a rock or mountain. We tell ourselves it won’t matter so much, but that’s our lazy side talking back to us. In actuality, scrambling up onto a rock or heading up a steep trail is often all you need to make that landscape photo pop. It can also add interest to a group photo. Depending on your subject, even a modest increase in POV height can help to add a sense of depth. The image above only required a short (but breathless) walk uphill. I also gave him plenty of space and shot with a longer focal length (600 mm.) so as not to disturb him from his morning “zen spot”.
- Or a tree! Last weekend while photographing these moose in Colorado I was becoming frustrated by the tall willows. While the moose were more than okay with it, happily munching on one of their favorite foods, the willows were also limiting my view to head and antler shots. So I did something I rarely do anymore: I climbed a tree. I only had to go about 6 or 7 feet up to make a big difference in POV. I ended up liking the shots with lower POV, those few without obscuring willows that is. But how would I have known for sure without trying?
I had to get part-way up a tree to even get this much of a moose in the willows, Colorado.
A fairly low POV, helped by finding an avenue through the willows, emphasized the size of this rather rude fellow.
- Tote a ladder around. This is something I’ve only done a couple times, but it’s certainly a good solution in some circumstances. For photos of people, just those few extra feet can really add variety and shift perspective dramatically. For landscapes when you’re in a flat area, especially when shooting from the road where vegetation blocks the view, it can make the difference between getting the shot and getting skunked.
- Go flying. I’m always on a budget, but on occasion it has worked out to charter a flight in a small plane. In the Okavango Delta, for example, I went in with a couple other people and took a spectacular flight over the enormous wetlands in northern Botswana, looking down on elephant and antelope herds. If money is no problem, a helicopter flight is the best option of all. You can hover for one thing, allowing extra time to shoot. In addition, being able to land anywhere (if regulations permit) makes choppers my all-time favorite mode of air travel.
- Get a drone. I don’t really like drones. For some reason they annoy me, and besides I like to be physically behind the camera. But I have to admit that drones allow you to dramatically raise point of view in a hurry. They also allow you to put the camera into places that are impossible to get to.
A low POV and wide angle helps to lend a sense of depth to this shot of a glacial tarn high in the Rockies.
I sometimes catch myself getting lazy when I’m out shooting. Not often, but it happens. I’ve learned that attitude has so much to do with photography, and occasionally the enthusiasm and motivation is just not there. In those cases I think it’s best to just enjoy the place you’re in without photographing anything. Of course us photogs. have a hard time doing this.
But if you are standing in one place and not varying your point of view, ask yourself if you really want to be out shooting that day. A good way to check if you are truly motivated is to simply observe yourself. Are you moving your feet? Are you changing position and height?
The bottom line is that if you want better photographs you simply must vary your point of view as much as possible. All this shifting around to get the shot can lead to problems both legal and safety-wise. So nextFriday I will add a post-script to the topic of POV. Thanks so much for reading, and have a wonderful weekend!
For this sunset shot at Red Rock Lake, Colorado, I wanted to get low enough to emphasize the grasses yet not so low that Indian Peaks would appear too small.
Orange globe mallow in bloom.
Yesterday was the first day of spring in the northern hemisphere. So in celebration here’s a Two for Tuesday post. It’s where I post two photos that are related to each other in some way.
This pair shows a couple closely related signs of Spring. During a splendid hike through a desert canyon recently, the season was springing forth in typical desert fashion. Spring rarely bowls you over in the desert. But the closer you look the more you see. It’s why both of these are close-up shots.
The hummingbird surprised me at first when he buzzed by my head, looking straight at me hovering a couple feet away before zooming off to perch on his branch. I wondered why he was there at first, but then walkiaround I found a spring with some flowers blooming. In fact the further up the little draw I walked the more like a lush oasis it seemed.
This little hummer was spending part of his morning checking out the visitor to his little oasis near a spring in a desert canyon: Death Valley National Park.
Get out there and enjoy springtime (or autumn for my southern hemisphere friends). And thanks for checking in!