Archive for the ‘sound’ Tag

Friday Foto Talk: Video & Landscapes   2 comments

I took a break last week from Friday Foto Talk.  I hope everybody’s new year is starting off right.  I’m going to conclude the series on video for still photographers with two or three posts focusing on common subjects that you might want to film, with tips on how to make the most of those opportunities.  The first one is, you guessed it, landscapes.  By the way, there’s nothing wrong with using the verb ‘to film’ when you’re talking about digital video.  Is there?  To view the videos here, first click on the title at top left.  Then you can press the play button.

The Feel of a Landscape

Have you ever been out photographing a beautiful landscape, perhaps with a stream flowing through the scene or a breeze sighing through the trees, and wondered what it would be like for your viewers to hear and feel what you are hearing and feeling?  How do you shoot a video of a landscape and not bore people?  Nothing is really happening after all.  Or is it?  Although there is very little going on in the video at top, I think the intense dawn chorus of birdsong gives a strong feel of watching the sun rise over the Klamath wetlands of Oregon.

THE BASICS & BEYOND

It’s probably best to start out filming landscapes by putting the camera on a tripod and using a medium to narrow aperture focus about 1/3 of the way into the scene.  It’s easy to screw up a video by leaving important areas out of focus.  Now if you have close foreground in your video, you should not only focus closer, right on the foreground or slightly beyond it, you should also go with a wide angle lens and use a narrow aperture.

But if you’re trying to transmit the feel of the scene to your viewers, the procedure I just mentioned may not be the only thing you try.  For me the reason to do videos is to give viewers an idea of what it’s like to stand where I’m standing and see what I’m seeing.  It’s also one of my main goals in shooting stills, by the way.  First of all, don’t worry so much about the boredom factor.  For landscapes you’ll be trying to strike a balance between capturing the mood and boring your viewers, but don’t let that hamstring your creativity.  Definitely don’t limit your video to when there’s a lot of action.  My opinion is there are very few situations in still photography that cannot be successfully filmed.

COMPOSITION IS STILL KING (BUT AUDIO IS QUEEN)

Compose your video to take advantage of any movement in the scene, but make sure the movement is in keeping with the scene’s mood.  For example you could try getting low and close to a moving foreground element (waving grass or moving water, for e.g.).  Despite what I just said about focus, you could even leave your foreground out of focus if it doesn’t take up too much of the frame.  It’s not quite as distracting to see out of focus foreground in a video as it is in a still photo.  If it’s moving we don’t seem to mind as much if it’s blurry.  Experiment with this.

Don’t forget audio.  Sound is an important factor when trying to impart mood in your video.  For native audio, note what part of the soundscape you want to capture and use the appropriate mic, if you have one.  Or adjust position, recording short clips and listening back to them until you pick up the sound nicely.  In the video below, which was shot with a fisheye lens so you can see both up- and down-stream at Zion’s Subway slot canyon, it didn’t matter what mic I used.  Because of the closed-in canyon, the sound of moving water dominates everything.

We looked at wind already (check out this post), but it is part of nature so is a near constant concern.   Use a windsock but realize the wind will still cause issues.  Position and shelter the mic to minimize it.  If it’s whistling around some object, you could get close and deliberately record instead of avoiding it.  Or consider a video with audio turned off, and add separately recorded sound or music later.  Whatever it takes to create the mood.

GET A MOVE ON!

A lot of good video can be done while locked down on a tripod if you select your subjects and compositions carefully.  But moving the camera is inevitable.  If you want to pan through a scene, check out the tips in this post.  What I didn’t mention there is creating a sense of the scene with camera movement.  For example, panning horizontally on a tripod allows you to change the view by pivoting the camera.  But that can end up giving your viewers a vague sense of being disconnected from the scene.

By moving the camera itself you can give viewers a sense of moving through the scene.  Moving in an arc is good when you’ve got focus locked on an important subject and want to keep it in focus.  Just remember to either use a wide-angle lens with careful hand-held technique, or use some means of stabilizing & smoothing the movement (wearable stabilizer, rail, etc.).  Jumpiness distracts.

The best way to find a video that captures the mood of a landscape is to try different things.  Mix things up.  Panning vertically in a forest is worth trying.  In the video below I was walking through a Colorado aspen grove on a breezy morning and, despite the fact I knew the sound would include some wind interference, wanted to capture the quaking part of quaking aspen.  It’s a lesson in not letting worries about the quality worry you too much.  The wind only messed up the sound for a brief moment.

One final example:  if you are lucky enough to have an interesting subject in the scene, you could try breaking a rule.  Normally videos require slow, steady camera movement.  But how about throwing in a sudden jump-over?  Swing quickly over to that moose, or even a friend caught in a compelling action.  You need to keep it steady once you’re there; that is unless it’s a dangerous critter, in which case viewers expect a little jumpiness.  The point is to avoid getting stuck into some imagined correct way to do things.

Next time we will take a beginner’s look at the wonderful world of wildlife videography.  And speaking of that, have a wonderful weekend!

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Friday Foto Talk: Video ~ Sound, Part II   2 comments

The series on getting started in video is almost complete.  Last week’s post provided general tips on recording sound during video capture.  Let’s dive deeper into the subject of sound by looking at a few of the more subtle ways that it can mess up your video, and some solutions to help make sure that doesn’t happen.

The Ear vs. the Microphone

You’ll find that the way you process sound is different than what is recorded by a microphone.

  • Your ears are placed perfectly for detecting sound all about you.  But with those flaps they’re biased toward the front.  A mic. (or two for stereo) can be placed anywhere.  But if it’s a shotgun mic it will mostly pick up those sounds in the direction you point the mic.  Omnidirectional mics are the opposite (see below).  By the way, I saw a guy on the web who records sound using a stereo mic setup where the mics are worn like headphones and are even shaped somewhat like ears.  His goal is to record as close to what he hears as possible.  The rather funny-looking stereo mic setup was for sale, as long as you don’t mind some strange looks!
  • It’s not just your ears that cause microphones to record sounds differently than the way you hear them.  Your brain is involved too.  Thanks to evolution you can pick up distant sounds and magnify them.  And simultaneously in some cases, you have the ability to filter out loud, nearby sounds in order to better hear a faint, more important one.  These natural skills allowed our ancestors to hear the sounds of a predator while near a stream.  Of course mics don’t do any of this.  An omnidirectional mic, for example, captures everything around it without bias.  The louder the sound the more prominent it will be in the recording.
  • Why is there a significant difference between the way your eyes and your camera captures images?  The key difference maker is the brain.  Just as it does with your eyes, your brain works in concert with your ears to weight various sounds differently.  The brain also has the ability to make your head turn, like an antenna dish, to effectively corral those sounds you want to hear and at least partly block those you don’t.
  • Let’s take an example.  It took me awhile to realize that recording next to a stream is a mixed blessing.  If your goal is to record the sound of the water it’s usually fine.  But if you want ambient sound that includes birds, etc., the water can overwhelm everything else.  Even when you’re going for the sound of the water, being close can make it sound too loud and harsh.

Solutions

Just as you learned to pay attention to subtle features of the light, you should start tuning your ears to subtle differences in volume, tone, bass notes vs. treble, etc.  But at the same time you need to factor in the above:  your brain filters and evens things out while the microphone records actual sounds, without bias.  Here are a few tips:

  • Move closer to that interesting but not very loud sound even if you can hear it just fine.  The old piece of photography advice, “if your photos aren’t good enough, you’re not close enough” applies to sound as well.
  • But depending on what mic you’re using don’t get too close!  Using the example above, recording next to a loud stream (a waterfall perhaps), and if you’re using a shotgun mic, avoid pointing it right at the water.  Try pointing it an angle or even directly away from the sound.
  • Adjust position to minimize loud sounds when you’re seeking balance and want to pick up more subtle sounds in the background, even if your ear hears a good balance.  Simply putting a tree or rock outcrop between you and a sound source that is too loud can make all the difference.  You can also use landscape features, such as rock walls, curved hillsides, etc. to focus and magnify key parts of the soundscape.
  • If you get more involved with audio, field gear can help greatly with all of the above.  For distant &/or faint sounds, a high-quality shotgun mic, along with parabolic reflectors, can make a huge difference.
  • For the ability to adjust the balance of tones, bringing out the sounds you want and minimizing those you don’t, consider upgrading to a system that replaces your camera’s sound-recording.  Basically a portable soundboard that mounts beneath your camera, it will allow you to adjust and equalize tones.  These systems are often used along with headphones.  They allow you to monitor the way the sound is actually being recorded, as opposed to the way you hear it.
  • You could also choose separate sound recording using a portable digital recorder.  You’ll have to sync the sound to your video later, but it allows you to focus on video and audio separately, thus doing a good job on both.
  • Remember:  all of this extra gear will only add to, not replace, what you can do in the field by changing position and using natural features, along with choosing the appropriate mic to use.

That’s all for now.  I hope you are getting more comfortable with the idea of doing videos, even if you’re an unrepentant still photographer.  Don’t be shy about asking questions or giving your two cents.  Have a fantastic weekend and happy shooting!

 

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