Archive for the ‘point of view’ Tag
Dawn and part of a frozen waterfall in Zion National Park. 16 mm., 1.6 sec. @ f/11, ISO 100
Sometimes you have just one opportunity to get a shot. You have to whip that camera up and shoot. If you’re not ready the moment is gone. But more often there is time to capture different versions of the same subject. Since landscape photography is so applicable to this, and because I do a lot of it (I’m not alone!), I’m going to use landscape photography to illustrate ways to create alternate versions of an image.
There are several main ways to vary a landscape shot. Let’s look at those that change the composition but keep the same main elements of the scene the same.
- Format. Changing between horizontal (or landscape) and vertical (portrait) formats is the easiest way to create alternate versions of an image. Normally a vertical emphasizes the height of things like trees and mountains. It can also give a greater sense of depth. Horizontals emphasize a sense of space and can lend a serene feel to a landscape. I usually try to get both unless the picture definitely lends itself to one or the other.
- Point of View. Point of view (POV) can be changed in many ways. I did a mini-series on POV that explores this very important subject. One of the most common ways to vary POV is by changing camera height. Depending on how close the foreground is, changing height will also change the distance to that foreground, which can greatly change the look of an image.
Vertical of the image at top. I lowered POV, got closer to the foreground and thus emphasized the ice and sandstone while reducing the apparent size and importance of the background mountains and sky. 16 mm., 1.3 sec. @ f/11, ISO 100.
- Proportion of Sky vs. Land. Changing POV in turn can change this variable. It involves changing the relative amount of sky vs. land in the image, a very common thing for landscapers to do. For example, simply tilting the camera down or shortening your tripod legs takes you from an image dominated by sky to one dominated by the landscape below. The possible variants are nearly endless. For example you can change from nearly fifty-fifty to almost all land with just a sliver of sky. You could even shoot with the horizon in the middle, but that works well only in certain situations.
- Distance from Subject/Foreground. As long as you don’t exclude a main element (in which case it’s a different picture), you can change the feel by simply moving closer to or further from the closest element in the frame. Try doing this without changing any of the variables above. It’s hard to do, isn’t it?
A rainbow and a tall fir tree frame Vista House in Oregon’s Columbia River Gorge. 35 mm., 0.4 sec. @ f/11, ISO 100.
As just mentioned it can be tough to change just a single variable when you’re taking multiple shots of the same thing. Of course you don’t have to limit yourself to one variable. And you shouldn’t. We’re not doing science experiments, we’re shooting pictures. But if you’re curious and want to see more clearly what the effects of changing a certain variable look like, go ahead and control the other variables. Play scientist for awhile.
Next time we’ll look at a few other variables you can change to create alternate versions of your landscape images. Thanks for reading. Have a fun weekend, one filled with laughter and plenty of pictures!
Which version do you like, this horizontal or the vertical above? By changing format & using a slightly longer focal length, the tree and top of the rainbow are cropped off. The light has also changed slightly. 50 mm., 0.5 sec. @ f/13, ISO 100.
A recent shot from a lovely place in the Colorado Rockies called Bluebird Lake.
Let’s follow-up on the topic point of view (POV) and in particular last week’s Foto Talk on ethics and legality. As you begin to dream up and try a wide variety of positions to shoot from, you’ll find yourself getting more deeply involved with it. It’s what photography is all about. But before you get lost in the moment, take another moment to consider the following cautionary tales. The phrase “safety comes first”, after all, applies to photography like it does to any undertaking.
Flowers grow on a lichen-covered rock outcrop at 11,000 feet in Rocky Mtn. National Park, Colorado.
POV & Safety: People
- Property Territoriality. I mentioned last week how you might run afoul of property owners or officials. Yet anybody could take strong exception to your shooting near their “territory”. One time in a lonely rural area I was getting some sunset shots. Not far away was a farm house. I was on the side of a county road, not even pointing the camera directly at the house. But driving away in the gathering dark I noticed a guy following me in a pickup. He continued for quite awhile until I stopped, got out and challenged him (something I don’t recommend). Later I was pulled over by a cop (the guy had called) and had to explain who I was and what I was doing.
While shooting this barn in central Oregon I was approached by the owner who told me I was on a private road. I was honest about my reason for being there and he let me shoot away.
- Compositional Territoriality. It’s not always property owners who have issues. You can also get in the way of other photographers too. Although I generally shy away from popular locations and subjects and so don’t run into many others, on occasion I have inadvertently stepped in the way of a fellow shooter. Some of these guys (they’re always guys) are extremely possessive of “their” compositions (see bottom image). I don’t know why but they seem to like shining flashlights or (worse) laser pointers at me in a sort of passive aggressive way. Weird.
- See Below for more on staying safe in populated areas.
Dusk falls at Bluebird Lake. I balanced on the edge for this shot ’cause I wanted a POV highlighting the metamorphic rock textures in the foreground.
- Stay Cool. I probably don’t have to tell you that situations involving angry people can spin quickly out of control. But if you remain relatively calm and listen to what the person is saying you’ll thank yourself later.
- Be Honest. It’s always best to state honestly what you’re doing. If you try to obfuscate in any way you’ll just put yourself under suspicion.
- Be Sensitive but Firm. I try to strike a balance between (1) being sensitive to both the law and to people’s concerns and (2) being firm about my right to be on public property and my right to use (especially to keep!) my camera gear.
- Know when to Walk Away. I don’t always handle people the way I later realize I should have. The main thing I’ve done wrong in the past is to not apologize and walk away when someone gets very angry. Apologize even if you don’t think you’re in the right. If they won’t let you go and want to get physical, just pull out your phone and dial 911.
St. Vrain River, Colorado.
POV & Safety: Animals
People are obviously the biggest danger, but other animals can be dangerous as well (see what I did there?). How close to that buffalo do you really need to be? Seems we read on a weekly basis about tourists getting hurt when they get too near buffalo or other wild animals in Yellowstone Park. And it’s not just tourists. Pro photographers with not enough wildlife experience or common sense get too close. Don’t take domestic animals too lightly either. For example I give Brahma bulls more respect than most wild animals.
This large African elephant in the Okavango Delta gave us a fright when he bluff charged.
- Learn. Start by reading about your animal subjects, paying particular attention to body language, territorial behaviours, “comfort distances” and related info. But remember to take anything you learn on the internet or in books as a general guide only. Animals are like people. It’s not just that each individual is unique; it’s that each situation you find it in is unique. Animal behaviour depends not just on instinct but on the individual and its circumstances.
- Observe. There is no substitute for careful observation of body language while you’re anywhere near a potentially dangerous animal. Don’t approach until you take a good look. For example, ears back is a common warning sign with prey animals. For predators you may get ears back if they’re feeling defensive, or ears forward and alert if they’re on the hunt.
- Go Slow. Approaching slowly will not only avoid frightening the animal and blowing your chances, it will also give the animal a chance to get comfortable and keep it from becoming defensive. It will also allow you more time to observe your quarry and stop if a behaviour indicates you should. As a rule you should never turn your back on or run from any potentially dangerous animal. There are exceptions to this however.
I’ve posted this one before, but it shows so well how animals use body language to warn you about getting any closer (arched tail).
POV & the Blinder Effect
- The blinder effect is when you are dialed in to what you’re doing, changing positions and POV. Our minds are on the shot, not on possible dangers.
- As photographers we are more vulnerable than the average person. To see why, let’s take mountain lions as an example. If you’re a smaller man or a woman you need to be particularly careful in cougar country. But even if you’re big and ugly like me, think about it. As a photographer we often choose to shoot near dawn or dusk when the light is good. And that’s when most predators are active. Further, we tend to crouch down (making ourselves smaller) with faces pressed to the camera instead of directed toward danger.
- In populated areas, simply substitute the word mugger for cougar and the situations are perfectly parallel.
It’s not just when they’re the subjects that wildlife is a potential danger. On a couple occasions I’ve been so focused on a landscape shot that I allowed a curious animal to approach me quite closely. Depending of course on the animal and the situation, this could be either a pleasant surprise or a dangerous development. For example cougars inhabit even populated areas. And don’t forget venomous snakes. Adjusting POV often means walking through tall grass or thick brush.
This Komodo dragon on the island of Rinca, Indonesia snuck up on me while I was photographing a bigger one. It’s a bit chilling to be stalked.
- Urban Areas: In cities, wandering into a sketchy neighborhood near dark is easy to do when chasing a shot. I did it in Kuala Lumpur once while trying for a photo of the Petronas Towers at blue hour (dusk). That is, until a kind local noticed and let me know I was putting myself (or at least all my camera gear) at risk. I got a shot but it wasn’t right, so next night I did something different (see image).
Not as famous as the Petronas Towers, but still worth shooting, the Kuala Lumpur Tower & the perfect POV on my hotel’s roof. I don’t think I was supposed to be there.
- Remote Areas: One reason I like wilderness areas is because there’s normally no need to worry about other people. But the other side of that coin means you are more vulnerable if a bad character does appear. Several years ago I was in Colombia on a hike through a jungle known for its bandits. I stopped to watch some very cool-looking monkeys. There was a small noise and I turned around to find that two young native guys with machetes had caught right up to me. Chills went down my spine. But happily they turned out to be friendly and we ended up hiking together. One even climbed a tree and used his machete to cut a huge fresh papaya down (yummy!).
For the blinder effect there is really just one solution: Be Aware of your Surroundings. Take your face away from the camera and look around from time to time, particularly in lonely places.
I feel like I’ve sounded a tone that’s a bit too paranoid. We all know what can result from too much fear: paralysis. In fact you’ll probably never run into most of these situations. But they are worth being ready for in the same way that it’s wise to prepare for a natural disaster that’ll probably never happen. So be careful out there, just not too careful. Shoot with as many POVs as you think is necessary. Practice awareness and common sense and all will be well. Have a great weekend!
At Utah’s Deadhorse Point, a popular spot, I showed up very early (rare for me). While shooting this gnarled juniper a guy who arrived after me but apparently wanted the same shot circled around trying various ways to hurry me.
For this recent shot of a granite-lined pool on Colorado’s St. Vrain River, I went for a downward-looking POV.
After the recent posts on point of view (POV), I realized I had been taking it for granted. It’s the kind of thing that experienced photographers model naturally when shooting. But they gloss over it and don’t talk about it enough when teaching. Novices tend to be busy figuring out their cameras, exposure, where to focus, etc. As a result they may not pick up on how important POV is until later on.
But here’s a simple fact: the sooner you learn to quickly and purposefully adjust your point of view, the faster your photography will improve. Why is POV so important? Because it’s all about finding the best compositions. And in photography composition means everything. So be sure to check out POV Part I and POV Part II. This week let’s take a step back and look at some consequences of changing POV in the quest for the perfect shot.
Last Wednesday featured a male mountain bluebird. Here is his mate near their nest at 11,800 feet (3600 m.) up in the Colorado Rockies.
An image whose point of view is of another creature’s point of view (note what the elk is looking at).
Okay. You got the message of the last two Foto Talks. You’re moving around with purpose, shifting POV in all directions, shooting away. You’re well on your way to better photos. And maybe on your way to trouble as well. Here are some quandaries common to photography, along with ideas on how to handle them.
POV & Ethics
- Be Kind to the Environment. Moving closer to your foreground subject could mean trampling delicate vegetation or disturbing other living things (stirring up sediment in a sensitive aquatic environment, for example). Just last night I saw a portrait photographer trampling flowers while shooting a family, and this was inside a national park.
- Be Kind to Fellow Photographers. In places with other photographers around, working a subject with many different POVs (normally laudable) could result in you selfishly “hogging” the subject (next post will have the counterpoint to this).
- Strike a Balance. While a strong commitment to getting the shot is necessary to get good images, it’s also important to avoid being insensitive or rude.
- Be Aware of where you are and of those around you at all times. I’m not saying to take your mind off the photography or to worry about what others think of you lying there on your belly. But at the same time, be conscious about damaging sensitive habitats. Think about the critters, including your fellow photographers.
The subalpine flower meadows of Mt. Rainier, Washington are a place where you should be careful where you step.
POV, Legality & Permission
Are you going to hop that fence to get closer to your subject, grab a quick shot and get back before the property owner comes along? What about entering a questionable area in some foreign country? Laws are different there and enforced in different ways. Do you really want the shot that badly?
- Example 1: Unexpected problem in a Foreign Land. In a busy public area in Malawi I was shooting a cute little baby with big brown eyes, after asking her mom. The unexpected result: a policeman became suspicious, approached me and wanted to take my camera away. I had to do some quick talking, show them my pictures, and get the mom to back me up.
- Example 2: Dangerous & Illegal POV turns out OK. Another example is the image below, which is a few years old. I had driven past this spot with a fantastic view of Portland, Oregon many times. But I could never see a safe way to shoot there. For the same reason that makes the spot such a great POV: it’s on a busy, curving freeway ramp that swings out over the Willamette River.
But one day I noticed a spot where the ramp widened, with just enough room to park. It even had a curb for a bit of protection from traffic. It required a quick maneuver in the heavy traffic. The first time I did it was on my motorcycle, which made it quite easy. But I knew it was illegal to be there so didn’t stay long. I quickly set up my tripod and captured the shot I had been after.
Portland, Oregon is a town of bridges, like the Steele Bridge here spanning the Willamette River at dusk with a crescent moon.
SOLUTIONS: Asking vs. Apologizing
You’ve probably heard the old expression “better to ask forgiveness than beg permission”. Sounds good, right? But in the real world you have to weigh risks and be able to handle things diplomatically if you get caught or challenged. Here are a few examples:
- In villages and on treks I’ve seen photographers surround some poor kid doing something cute, with no thought of whether it was okay with the parents. That is horrible ugly tourist behavior. With kids you should almost always ask the parents first. Or be ready to be apologetic and honest about your motivations.
- For sensitive areas (political or military), I would avoid them outright. If you insist, always ask first.
- Photographing someone’s property (including their bodies) also begs you to ask first. But we’re entering a gray area. If you make it a rule to always ask, you may not get many good shots. You could miss the light, for example. Then in reality you’re asking to return another time.
- One more example: on a city street photographing people. Unless you shoot first, you’ll probably miss that great candid shot. For some subjects, however, it doesn’t matter, street performers for example. So you may as well ask first.
One of my favorite child images, a Sherpa boy waiting for his dad to come home. I didn’t ask permission first, but in a part of Nepal away from tourists, I was willing to risk it. I smiled a lot and his mom invited me in for tea.
SOLUTIONS: The Quandary
The last two points above illustrate a quandary unique to photography. Do you forego the quick shot and engage first, or do you strike while the iron is hot and talk later? Each of us have to handle it in our own way, realizing that each situation is different. Ultimately we need to accept responsibility for our actions. It’s safest to ask permission first, especially if there is the slightest doubt. But whatever happens, it’s important to be honest and pleasant.
Okay that’s it for now. Next week we’ll look at other issues to be aware of when actively changing your point of view. Happy shooting and have a wonderful weekend!
Sunset over the high tundra of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado.
In a forest I often find stumps or fallen logs to stand on, raising POV. Like atop this fallen giant in California’s redwoods.
This is the second of two parts on Point of View (POV) in photography. Last week Part I looked at general position and angle related to subject and background. This time I’ll focus on what most people think of when they think of POV: height.
Point of View: Height
Let’s go back to when we first picked up a camera. What did we do? We shot from a standing position. Then when we got hold of a tripod we extended the legs and again shot from eye level. This isn’t surprising; it’s almost always the way we experience the world.
Unfortunately, it quickly becomes boring to see picture after picture from this same position. You start to wonder what it’s like to see things the way the world’s shortest man or the tallest woman sees them. Going further, what is it like to see the world from an eagle’s point of view, or an insect’s? There’s only one way to find out. Get up or get down and shoot! It’s the other major way to change point of view: change the camera height.
Long’s Peak, shot last night from the highest point I could find on Trail Ridge Road, Rocky Mtn. National Park, Colorado.
The easiest way to change height POV is to lower it. You go down on one knee, assuming the classic shooter’s pose. Or you squat, getting a bit lower. Or you lay right down on your belly with elbows propped in a sort of tripod. When you’re using an actual tripod and want to go lower, you either change the length of the legs or spread them more widely.
You can also remove the center column or otherwise rig up the tripod to go even lower. For ultra low POVs you can just plop the camera right down on the ground. Or you use a beanbag, your camera bag, or a piece of clothing for cushioning, giving you a POV very near ground level.
This small cholla cactus I wanted to highlight against the stormy sky of Death Valley, California. So I used a very low POV, a foot or two above the ground.
When you lower your point of view a few interesting things happen:
- Foregrounds draw nearer and get bigger. For compositions with close foreground elements, lowering POV brings them even closer (see image above). If you want everything in focus front to back you may have to stop down to a smaller aperture (higher f/number). Or you can take more than one shot and focus stack the images.
- Foregrounds change position. Lowering your POV also changes how foreground subjects are set off against the background. As you go down, close foreground elements rise in proportion. This can set them against the sky instead of the landscape and even put them in silhouette. You also need to be aware of foreground elements blocking important parts of the background. Make small shifts in position to compensate and get the composition just right.
- Backgrounds recede. This depends on how wide your lens is, but when you lower the camera the background can lose prominence in favor of foreground elements. Even tall mountains tend to shrink. Not as much as when you change from a 50 mm. to a 17 mm. focal length, for example, but the effect is similar. It’s another way that lowering POV helps to emphasize foreground elements in an image, by de-emphasizing the background.
For these two elk this morning, I got low to set them against the rising sun. Compare with image below.
Another recent elk from Rocky Mtn. National Park. But this time from a higher POV gained by walking uphill.
Another way to vary height POV is to raise the camera, so you’re looking down on your subject. It’s more challenging than lowering the camera, but it’s often more interesting to try. And it’s more satisfying when it turns out well. That’s because, as hard as it can seem to get very low (especially as we get older), going up usually requires the most effort and imagination. You need to either climb with your gear up to some perch or do some outside-the-box thinking, or both.
Here are some ideas:
- Climb a rock or mountain. We tell ourselves it won’t matter so much, but that’s our lazy side talking back to us. In actuality, scrambling up onto a rock or heading up a steep trail is often all you need to make that landscape photo pop. It can also add interest to a group photo. Depending on your subject, even a modest increase in POV height can help to add a sense of depth. The image above only required a short (but breathless) walk uphill. I also gave him plenty of space and shot with a longer focal length (600 mm.) so as not to disturb him from his morning “zen spot”.
- Or a tree! Last weekend while photographing these moose in Colorado I was becoming frustrated by the tall willows. While the moose were more than okay with it, happily munching on one of their favorite foods, the willows were also limiting my view to head and antler shots. So I did something I rarely do anymore: I climbed a tree. I only had to go about 6 or 7 feet up to make a big difference in POV. I ended up liking the shots with lower POV, those few without obscuring willows that is. But how would I have known for sure without trying?
I had to get part-way up a tree to even get this much of a moose in the willows, Colorado.
A fairly low POV, helped by finding an avenue through the willows, emphasized the size of this rather rude fellow.
- Tote a ladder around. This is something I’ve only done a couple times, but it’s certainly a good solution in some circumstances. For photos of people, just those few extra feet can really add variety and shift perspective dramatically. For landscapes when you’re in a flat area, especially when shooting from the road where vegetation blocks the view, it can make the difference between getting the shot and getting skunked.
- Go flying. I’m always on a budget, but on occasion it has worked out to charter a flight in a small plane. In the Okavango Delta, for example, I went in with a couple other people and took a spectacular flight over the enormous wetlands in northern Botswana, looking down on elephant and antelope herds. If money is no problem, a helicopter flight is the best option of all. You can hover for one thing, allowing extra time to shoot. In addition, being able to land anywhere (if regulations permit) makes choppers my all-time favorite mode of air travel.
- Get a drone. I don’t really like drones. For some reason they annoy me, and besides I like to be physically behind the camera. But I have to admit that drones allow you to dramatically raise point of view in a hurry. They also allow you to put the camera into places that are impossible to get to.
A low POV and wide angle helps to lend a sense of depth to this shot of a glacial tarn high in the Rockies.
I sometimes catch myself getting lazy when I’m out shooting. Not often, but it happens. I’ve learned that attitude has so much to do with photography, and occasionally the enthusiasm and motivation is just not there. In those cases I think it’s best to just enjoy the place you’re in without photographing anything. Of course us photogs. have a hard time doing this.
But if you are standing in one place and not varying your point of view, ask yourself if you really want to be out shooting that day. A good way to check if you are truly motivated is to simply observe yourself. Are you moving your feet? Are you changing position and height?
The bottom line is that if you want better photographs you simply must vary your point of view as much as possible. All this shifting around to get the shot can lead to problems both legal and safety-wise. So nextFriday I will add a post-script to the topic of POV. Thanks so much for reading, and have a wonderful weekend!
For this sunset shot at Red Rock Lake, Colorado, I wanted to get low enough to emphasize the grasses yet not so low that Indian Peaks would appear too small.
An image from Guatemala, where just the right point of view on the street created interesting angles.
Having tackled fairly heavy topics recently, it’s back to basics this week. Basic but definitely not trivial. Although point of view could describe your own subjective take on the subjects you shoot (part of your style), the term is used most often in photography to describe the physical location of your camera. It’s abbreviated to POV.
It boils down to a very simple idea: constantly vary your points of view. Don’t stand in one place, and don’t shoot from the same height above ground. Move around; get low, lower, and even all the way to the ground; shoot from under your subject; get high and shoot directly down on the scene.
Snow Canyon State Park, Utah offers some amazing points of view. It felt like I was perched atop a huge animal’s foot here.
Point of View: Angle & Position
When we start out in photography we tend to shoot with the sun behind us so that our subjects are illuminated. This is natural and not a bad way to go (exposure is a breeze, for one). Then we see something interesting and naturally turn our cameras that way. We just changed our angle of view.
But then, as novices, we stop there. We don’t vary that angle. We don’t look behind us very much. We also don’t consider the direction that the light is coming from. Better photography comes from shooting in more than one direction (look behind you!) and from remembering the light.
For this one of a termite tower in the Okavango Delta, I moved close to it and shot upward to emphasize its height.
To start varying POV, simply turn a bit and take a shot. Go ahead and continue to rotate through the entire 360 degrees of the compass, shooting as you go. But this is just panning. It’s important to change position too, particularly for close-up subjects. That will bring you closer or further away from your foreground subject relative to various backgrounds.
The idea is to vary POV by combining changes in position with changes in angle of view. But not in a half-hazard or willy-nilly manner. Don’t be that indecisive photographer you sometimes see, constantly putting the camera up to his eyes, swinging it around and zooming in and out, hoping to land on a good shot. It’s not necessarily a bad thing using your camera to test compositions, but I recommend the following.
Avoid pointing your camera hither and thither before you decide on a shot. Use your feet to change POV instead. Use your unaided eyes and keep the wider view; you’ll see more. I almost never put the camera up to my eye until I’m ready to shoot, then I shift or zoom only slightly to dial in the exact composition I want, paying special attention to the edges and corners where unwanted distractions may lurk.
So, in order to move with thought and purpose, read on…
- POV and Subject: Generally speaking getting closer to a subject makes for better pictures of it. But let’s go beyond this simple yet important bit of advice. When you have multiple elements in an image (a landscape with close-in foreground for example), changing position and angle of view changes perspective in significant ways. Even for things that are further away it’s surprising how a small change in position can change the look of a picture. Many shooters don’t appreciate this enough. They don’t think it will matter to walk 10 or 20 yards (meters). But it does (see images below).
Saratoga Springs, Death Valley, CA., from on top of a small hill.
A closer & lower POV than the image above, only taking a few minutes to walk down off the hill.
- POV, Background and Light: Most of us go for the more spectacular, dramatic background. But think about it first. Where is the light coming from? How will changing your position affect how the light falls on your subject or supporting foreground elements? In a past Foto Talk I detailed how to use differing angles of sunlight in your photography. That’s a good post to check out.
- POV, Background and Composition: If you change your POV to change background, how will that change how your overall composition works? For example, will the color palette or texture of the background be consistent or clash in some way with your foreground or other elements? I’m not saying don’t take the picture, but when you take a look on the computer later think about this stuff when you choose selects.
I had to get fairly close (but not too close!) to this buffalo for just the right balance with the background at Yellowstone National Park.
- POV and Subject Weighting: For relatively close subjects, where you stand and which direction you shoot may not only change the background; it may also change your subject’s relationship to it. Will that more dramatic background overwhelm your subject, making it “disappear”? How close do you want to be to your foreground? Remember it’s your choice how much to emphasize a foreground subject.
Wanting the covered bridge to be the main subject, I also wanted Bollinger Mill, Missouri in the same shot. So careful positioning (and a wide angle) was necessary.
Next week’s Foto Talk will go into the ways that changing POV in terms of height affects your photography, with tips for varying things to get the best possible images. Have a wonderful weekend and happy shooting!
It required careful positioning to get this image from Oklahoma. I didn’t want the usual composition where the bales dominate. Instead my focus was the cottonwood in warm light from the setting sun.