Archive for the ‘education’ Tag
Looking south toward Mt. Jefferson from iconic Timberline Lodge, Oregon.
At the end of a winter’s day skiing, this is looking south toward Mt. Jefferson from iconic Timberline Lodge, Oregon.
This is the 3rd and final part of my little series on shooting alternate versions of the same basic subject. Check out Part I and Part II for the nuts and bolts of varying composition and other factors just enough to create alternates without completely changing the image. Today I want to discuss a very important part of alternate versions: the review. This is where a lot of novice photographers tend to become frustrated, so this post includes some basic advice designed to help you use precious review time wisely.
Last time I mentioned how it’s important at first to be aware of why you are shooting an alternate of the same subject. It could be as simple as grabbing a quick vertical. Or it could be a version that concentrates attention on one particularly strong subject by using a large aperture, thus throwing the background out of focus. Or you can change multiple things about the image, getting low and close while rotating to horizontal, zooming out a bit, and including less sky.
An old pile dike along the Columbia River in Oregon.
Review on the LCD
It’s a good idea to think about why you shot different versions when you review the images later, whether on your camera’s LCD screen or on the computer monitor. Speaking of the LCD, I see plenty of photographers checking out their photos during the shoot. That is fine if you’re checking things like focus and exposure; in other words, making sure you don’t need to re-shoot. Or if you want to get a human subject more interested in the shoot. But don’t take too much time looking at the back of the camera. Avoid the trap of getting too caught up in review when you should be concentrating on your subject and the light.
I try to review the images on my camera’s LCD very soon after shooting. I do this not only to delete images with obvious problems right away, in order to make more room on the card. But I also like doing a quick inventory of my alternate versions while the shoot is still fresh. It is easier than you think to delete images you should have kept. Unlike a computer, your camera doesn’t have a trashcan where you can recover deleted images. It’s forever!
For example, you might think you have useless repeats of the shot when you actually had in mind at the time good reasons to capture an alternate version. Maybe your reasoning was unconscious and maybe it wasn’t. But if it was, reviewing on your LCD soon after the shoot has the effect of bringing it right up to the surface of your mind. I don’t always keep alternates at this stage. Sometimes I realize my reason for the alternate was rather superficial.
Despite a significant difference in composition, the light and atmosphere are similar enough to call this vertical of the above image an alternate version.
Review on the Computer
No matter how conscious you are while out shooting, when you’re viewing and rating the different versions on the computer later, deciding which to keep, it’s helpful to note what sets each alternate version apart. The differences are often subtle but important for what you’re trying to get across in an image. Were you trying to emphasize an interesting foreground with an alternate version? Next time out will you get low and close while the light is at its best instead of doing that as an afterthought?
While it’s perfectly natural and appropriate to prefer one version over another, be careful about your judgments. For example you may prefer the vertical version of a scene you just shot in dramatic sidelight. But that doesn’t mean you should always photograph scenes like it vertically. Say you return in softer, more subtle light. The horizontal may turn out to be the better choice.
Another reason to avoid overemphasizing personal preference is the existence of considerations that have nothing to do with whether one version is better than another. A horizontal version, for example, may obviously look better because of layering or other characteristics of the scene. But what if someone loves the image and wants to frame and hang it in a place that will fit a vertical but not a horizontal? Or what if a magazine likes it but needs one that has more negative space? That’s yet another way to shoot an alternate, by the way. By zooming out and/or flipping the camera to include more blank sky, water, or other similarly plain space, you allow room for type, mastheads and the like.
The vertical of the opening image includes the weather vane atop the lodge.
Using Review to Grow
As you review more and more shoots you’ll naturally learn which kinds of images you like better for which kinds of subject and light. You might notice yourself gradually shooting slightly fewer alternate versions. But the idea behind doing alternate versions is to increase not decrease your options.
Although learning your preferences is a good thing, don’t over-generalize and end up missing opportunities. It’s important to realize that every scene and every moment’s light and mood is unique. Also unique is the message you want to get across in the image. Alternate versions can help you accomplish this most important of photography goals, but only if you do them.
The rocky coastline of the northern Baja Peninsula, Mexico.
One thing I’ve learned over time is not to force myself to judge when I’m reviewing images on the computer. Of course I do mostly prefer one shot over others, and one version of that shot over alternate versions. But when there’s no clear winner I don’t spend a lot of time forcing myself to decide. I just give the two an equal number of stars, label them both with copy names (a field in Lightroom just below the filename), and move on.
Most important is to keep an open mind. Open to other possibilities while you’re out there shooting, and open to different ways of evaluating images on the computer. As with all thoughtful post-shot review, considering your reasons for creating alternate versions can inform your next shooting session in interesting ways. It can also force you to grow as a photographer. For example you might find yourself better defining your style. Shooting and then reviewing different versions could lead you to explore a certain way of shooting in more depth. Thanks so much for reading and I hope your weekend is a fun one. Happy shooting!
For this alternate version of the above image I waited until deep dusk (which allowed a longer exposure). I also got lower and closer to the foreground rocks and relied on artificial lights from a hotel to illuminate them.
I’d love to know how much you all are getting out of this little series on video basics for still photographers. Are you getting excited about shooting a video or two to go along with your stills? Have you been pressing that red button more often lately? Or at least thinking about it?
Last time we left off with some gear-oriented tips on panning and moving your camera while shooting video. Let’s continue with the nuts and bolts on moving the camera through the scene. If you’d like to view the videos I’ve posted, resist the temptation to click the play button right off; it won’t work. Instead click the title at top left. You’ll go to my Vimeo, where you can press the play button.
A Word about Gear
Last week I mentioned tripod heads designed (at least in part) for video. But I don’t want to make it about buying specialty gear. This series is for you who are just getting into video or thinking about it. If you start getting serious and video becomes a big focus of your shoots, then it’s worth spending money on accessories. For an intermediate level of enthusiasm, I’d limit purchases to an external shotgun microphone plus a fluid video head.
In terms of camera movement and shooting video on the fly, one of the more useful pieces of gear is one I already mentioned: a stabilizer rig. Many times I’ve wished I had one, but it is another piece of gear to haul along. For the following clip I had to hike up a rugged Utah canyon to get there. So I’m not sure I would have brought a stabilizer along even if I owned one. Despite the rock hopping, I think it turned out pretty smooth. To see that video go to Canyon Hike
Another piece of gear (or two) to consider, if and when you get serious about video, is a rail and/or cart. They both allow you to swing the camera through a smooth path or arc like you see in professional shoots. The technique is used most often in portrait & event shooting, but landscape videographers sometimes use rails. If you’re handy you can make them yourself.
Video Tips On Location
Now let’s go somewhere cool and see how to get started making moving pictures. The advice below doesn’t include some major issues of sound. Those are worth saving for a coming post devoted to audio. A few tips is all you need to get started:
- Focal length matters. I talked about this last week but it’s worth expanding on. The shorter your focal length and wider your angle of view, the easier it is to move the camera without shaky frame edges. This applies whether you’re doing it by hand or on a support. And it means that when you zoom in to long focal lengths it can be next to impossible to avoid a jittery look. That’s what happened in the clip below. In the excitement of being so close to Everest and its neighbours, I used a relatively long focal length and panned by hand, ending up with a jumpy video.
But before you slap that 16 mm. lens on, there is another effect when you’re shooting at very wide angles. It depends on how close you are to scene elements (especially the foreground), and also how fast you pan the camera, but the frame edges can move in a rather distracting way. Try it yourself and see: shoot a few panning video clips at a focal length of 16 or 17 mm. It may be best to use a focal length near 50 mm. when panning, at least when you’re just starting out.
- Go Manual. Although there is nothing wrong with automatic mode when you want a quick video, I recommend getting used to shooting manually right off the bat. Manual exposure and manual focus. For example, in a nature scene where you want everything in focus, go about it this way: While you’re in aperture priority mode, pick a smallish aperture (f/8 – f/11) for good depth of field. Then point the camera at a place in the scene that represents the (approximate) average brightness of everything you’ll be panning through. Note the settings (aperture, shutter speed and ISO). Then go to manual mode and switch to those settings. Autofocus on something about 1/2 to 2/3 into the scene. Then switch to manual focus and leave it there for the duration of the clip.
- Plan your clip. Figure out ahead of time where to start and stop your video, then do a quick dry run before you press play. Of course if you’re shooting live subjects you may decide to continue the clip or cut it short. Still, getting an outline of the clip in your head ahead of time is a good idea. Adjust your position to get the smoothest and quietest (if you’re recording ambient sound) motion. While panning I generally try to avoid moving my feet. Even if on a tripod, how you change position through a pan will affect the final product.
- Slow down. The most common beginner mistake is to pan and move the camera too quickly through the scene. As always with camera movement during video, focal length is a factor. The longer your focal length the slower you need to pan. When you pan too quickly the scene appears to race by. A further influence is how far away you are from whatever you’re filming. When fairly close to the subject, go more slowly. But don’t go to the other extreme. A super-slow pan will bore your viewers, leading them to not finish the clip. The best way to know the right speed for different lenses and various kinds of scenes is to experiment and play the clips back on your LCD.
- Review & Repeat! When you first start out shooting video, just like when you started still photography, you’ll shoot a lot of junk. The key is to review the shot before moving on. You’l likely find that it requires a number of takes to get it right. For the waterfall at bottom, I did 3 or 4 takes before I got one I liked. As you gain more experience you’ll more often get it right the first time. This is a worthy goal. You want to catch the most interesting goings-on, not to mention the most interesting light.
That’s it for this week’s Foto Talk! Please don’t hesitate to share your own experiences with video. Or ask a question about anything at all. Have a wonderful weekend and happy shooting!
Early mornings in beautiful places like Pintler Pass, Montana are tailor made for flow.
I’m liking this series on flow in photography. Hope you are too! Flow, or being ‘in the zone’, is a state of intense focus where you often lose the sense of time passing. Check out the first two posts in the series for a background primer. This and succeeding posts will go through particular examples to show how flow can help you get the best images whether you’re shooting a grand landscape or ducks in the park.
I’m not surprised that I more easily enter flow while alone and shooting landscapes. I love being in nature and almost always feel relaxed away from civilization. I don’t think we can assume, however, that flow in nature photography is always a piece of cake. Often it’s when we’re alone in a beautiful setting that those oddly irrelevant thoughts enter in and distract us, taking us right out of the moment. And being in the moment, fully engaged with your subject, is the entry point to experiencing photo flow. External factors may get in the way of flow too, as the following example shows.
Though I’m not as much into shooting the stars as I used to be (too popular), I still love stargazing: Snow Canyon, Utah.
EXAMPLE – Rain at Panther Creek Falls: Here’s an occasion where I got into flow despite challenges related to weather & terrain. Although it’s a bit overexposed and popular with photogs., I’d been wanting to shoot at Panther Creek Falls in SW Washington. To my surprise I was alone. The fact it was rainy may have had something to do with that, but I wanted to shoot it in a rainy period, for the atmosphere and green of the vegetation. I spent a lot of time wiping water from my lens, as much from the spray as from rain.
I wacked through wet brush on a very steep slope, approaching from the opposite side of the canyon than the viewpoint and trail is on. This waterfall gets its unique character from a large spring that floods out of the steep hillside, and I wanted to see that up close. As I always do with popular spots, I was going for completely different points of view than most every other shot at Panther. I stayed for nearly three hours, working the subject mercilessly. Getting to interesting viewpoints in that terrain was slow going, and all the lens-wiping took time too.
Panther Creek Falls, Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Washington.
Despite all the distractions of weather and terrain, once I was soaked and didn’t need to worry about getting any wetter, I entered a state of flow. The image above wasn’t the best of the shoot. The horizontal version probably is, but I’ve posted that before. I squatted very close to the water and under the log. The main falls is in the background. There are two lessons here: First, only on a misty rainy day is a shot like this possible; you can’t really simulate it very well with software. Second, flow by its nature means ignoring discomfort and overcoming challenges.
At Monument Valley, Utah, sand and the light at dusk create a peaceful scene.
To me landscape and architecture are similar in many ways. By the way, I plan to post soon on the different types of photography and how to use their commonalities to more effectively “cross-train” your shooting. You are much more likely to be around other people when shooting architecture, but flow still feels similar to landscape. Capturing the character of a building, as with mountains, is more likely when you are in the moment; when you carefully observe the subject, its surroundings and the changing light.
A building on Portland’s industrial eastside.
EXAMPLE – Portland Eastside: I was just walking along on the east side of Portland, Oregon, close to the river. Many of the older warehouses and other unremarkable buildings in this area have been spiffed up in recent years, and are now occupied by various upscale tenants. It was dusk, my favorite time to shoot architecture. I forgot about judgments and started noticing the more subtle features of the buildings. This is what flow can do, allow you to notice everything around you.
A big challenge for this image was one that is common with architecture: point of view. In order to get the right angle and show off the gentle curve of the building as it follows the curving street and sidewalk, I needed to stand in the middle of the street. Because of the low light, I also needed to be on a tripod. After several unsuccessful tries where I was chased back to the sidewalk by traffic, I was able to get the shot during a lull. I don’t think I was in flow while running for my life. But I was for the important part; that is, finding the subject & composition.
Thanks for reading and have a great weekend!
Grand Canyon’s North Rim Lodge reflects warm light from the setting sun at Bright Angel Point.
An image from Guatemala, where just the right point of view on the street created interesting angles.
Having tackled fairly heavy topics recently, it’s back to basics this week. Basic but definitely not trivial. Although point of view could describe your own subjective take on the subjects you shoot (part of your style), the term is used most often in photography to describe the physical location of your camera. It’s abbreviated to POV.
It boils down to a very simple idea: constantly vary your points of view. Don’t stand in one place, and don’t shoot from the same height above ground. Move around; get low, lower, and even all the way to the ground; shoot from under your subject; get high and shoot directly down on the scene.
Snow Canyon State Park, Utah offers some amazing points of view. It felt like I was perched atop a huge animal’s foot here.
Point of View: Angle & Position
When we start out in photography we tend to shoot with the sun behind us so that our subjects are illuminated. This is natural and not a bad way to go (exposure is a breeze, for one). Then we see something interesting and naturally turn our cameras that way. We just changed our angle of view.
But then, as novices, we stop there. We don’t vary that angle. We don’t look behind us very much. We also don’t consider the direction that the light is coming from. Better photography comes from shooting in more than one direction (look behind you!) and from remembering the light.
For this one of a termite tower in the Okavango Delta, I moved close to it and shot upward to emphasize its height.
To start varying POV, simply turn a bit and take a shot. Go ahead and continue to rotate through the entire 360 degrees of the compass, shooting as you go. But this is just panning. It’s important to change position too, particularly for close-up subjects. That will bring you closer or further away from your foreground subject relative to various backgrounds.
The idea is to vary POV by combining changes in position with changes in angle of view. But not in a half-hazard or willy-nilly manner. Don’t be that indecisive photographer you sometimes see, constantly putting the camera up to his eyes, swinging it around and zooming in and out, hoping to land on a good shot. It’s not necessarily a bad thing using your camera to test compositions, but I recommend the following.
Avoid pointing your camera hither and thither before you decide on a shot. Use your feet to change POV instead. Use your unaided eyes and keep the wider view; you’ll see more. I almost never put the camera up to my eye until I’m ready to shoot, then I shift or zoom only slightly to dial in the exact composition I want, paying special attention to the edges and corners where unwanted distractions may lurk.
So, in order to move with thought and purpose, read on…
- POV and Subject: Generally speaking getting closer to a subject makes for better pictures of it. But let’s go beyond this simple yet important bit of advice. When you have multiple elements in an image (a landscape with close-in foreground for example), changing position and angle of view changes perspective in significant ways. Even for things that are further away it’s surprising how a small change in position can change the look of a picture. Many shooters don’t appreciate this enough. They don’t think it will matter to walk 10 or 20 yards (meters). But it does (see images below).
Saratoga Springs, Death Valley, CA., from on top of a small hill.
A closer & lower POV than the image above, only taking a few minutes to walk down off the hill.
- POV, Background and Light: Most of us go for the more spectacular, dramatic background. But think about it first. Where is the light coming from? How will changing your position affect how the light falls on your subject or supporting foreground elements? In a past Foto Talk I detailed how to use differing angles of sunlight in your photography. That’s a good post to check out.
- POV, Background and Composition: If you change your POV to change background, how will that change how your overall composition works? For example, will the color palette or texture of the background be consistent or clash in some way with your foreground or other elements? I’m not saying don’t take the picture, but when you take a look on the computer later think about this stuff when you choose selects.
I had to get fairly close (but not too close!) to this buffalo for just the right balance with the background at Yellowstone National Park.
- POV and Subject Weighting: For relatively close subjects, where you stand and which direction you shoot may not only change the background; it may also change your subject’s relationship to it. Will that more dramatic background overwhelm your subject, making it “disappear”? How close do you want to be to your foreground? Remember it’s your choice how much to emphasize a foreground subject.
Wanting the covered bridge to be the main subject, I also wanted Bollinger Mill, Missouri in the same shot. So careful positioning (and a wide angle) was necessary.
Next week’s Foto Talk will go into the ways that changing POV in terms of height affects your photography, with tips for varying things to get the best possible images. Have a wonderful weekend and happy shooting!
It required careful positioning to get this image from Oklahoma. I didn’t want the usual composition where the bales dominate. Instead my focus was the cottonwood in warm light from the setting sun.