Archive for the ‘Botswana’ Tag

Travel Theme: Dry   17 comments

It’s been too long since I’ve participated in Ailsa’s travel theme posts.  This week the topic is Dry.  Enjoy these images from southern Africa.  I was there for three months a couple years ago, at a time that straddled the end of the dry and beginning of the wet seasons.  My better desert landscapes are from the American Southwest, but these show the real impact of dry.

It was amazing the sense of anticipation among the animals (and also people) as they awaited the rains.  It is for many of them a time of life and death, a time of anxiety.  This is especially true with respect to their young.  Most animals there have babies not long before the wet season.  Then they have to wait out the worst days, the end of the dry season while watching their young suffer.  Maybe it’s a way for them to make sure the young are strong, I don’t know.

If you are interested in any of these images (copyrighted and not available for free download), please click on them.  If you have any questions or specific requests, please contact me.  Enjoy and thanks for looking!

A lone wildebeest stands watching the wet season's first storm sweep into the Mbabe Depression of Botswana.  No rain came at first, only wind and incredible dust.  A moment after I shot this, the wildebeest ran for shelter.

A lone wildebeest stands watching the wet season’s first storm sweep into the Mbabe Depression of Botswana. No rain came at first, only wind and incredible dust. A moment after I shot this, the wildebeest ran for shelter.

A clump of grass grows at the base of an enormous orange dune in Namibia's Namib Desert.

A clump of grass grows at the base of an enormous orange dune in Namibia’s Namib Desert.

A large female African elephant shades her baby from the hot direct sun during the hottest days of the year in Botswana's Chobe National Park.

A large female African elephant shades her baby from the hot direct sun during one of the hottest days of the year in Botswana’s Chobe National Park.

The standing snags of camel thorn trees trace a dry watercourse in Namibia.  the mountain-sized dunes of the Namib Desert lie in the background.

Standing snags of camel thorn trees trace a dry watercourse in Namibia. Mountain-sized dunes of the Namib Desert lie in the background.

Ostriches seemed to be most abundant in the dry grasslands of Namibia.

Ostriches seemed to be most abundant in the dry grasslands of Namibia.

During their incredible migration into the Makgadikgadi Pans of Botswana, a zebra mom uses her tail brushes insects away from her foal.

During their incredible migration into the Makgadikgadi Pans of Botswana, a zebra mom uses her tail to brush insects away from her foal.

A desert plated lizard in the dunes of the Namib desert uses its armored head to dig quickly into the sand.

A desert plated lizard in the dunes of the Namib desert uses its armored head to dig quickly into the sand.

Plants adapted to dry conditions normally grow very slowly, but it's hard to beat the ancient Welwitschia of Namibia.  Some are well over 2000 years old.

Plants adapted to dry conditions grow very slowly, but it’s hard to beat the ancient Welwitschia of Namibia. Some are well over 2000 years old.

The long horns and large ears are characteristic features of the gemsbok, an antelope living in arid regions of Africa.

The long horns and large ears are characteristic features of the gemsbok, an antelope superbly adapted to the arid regions of Africa.

This lioness in Botswana's Kalahari Desert is preserving her energy during an incredibly hot day in order to hunt in the relative cool of the evening.  Wish I had as good an excuse to be lazy!

This lioness in Botswana’s Kalahari Desert is preserving her energy during an incredibly hot day in order to hunt (the above animal) in the relative cool of the evening. Wish I had as good an excuse to be lazy!

Namibia's Skeleton Coast is by far the driest, most empty place I've been, an extremely arid coast with plenty of shipwrecks.

Namibia’s Skeleton Coast is by far the driest, most empty place I’ve been, an extremely arid shore with plenty of shipwrecks.

Anyone who has spent a lot of time in deserts knows about the annoyingly dry thing that happens inside your nose.  This giraffe in the Kalahari has the solution!

Anyone who has spent a lot of time in deserts knows about the annoying, dry thing that happens inside your nose. This giraffe in the Kalahari has the solution!

Then he smiled mockingly at me for having far too short a tongue!

Then he seemed to smile mockingly at me for having far too short a tongue!

A mirage of a lake appears on Namibia's Skeleton Coast.

A mirage of a lake appears on Namibia’s Skeleton Coast.

Sunset in the dunes of the Namib Desert.

Sunset in the dunes of the Namib Desert.

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Elephants are too Awesome to Lose Forever   2 comments

Driving in Botswana has its particular hazards.

Driving in Botswana has its particular hazards.

This is a rare type of post for me.  I think that, sometimes, predictions of a species’ demise are exaggerated.  Why is extinction always (reflexively?) ascribed to humans when natural forces often play the most important role?  But what is happening to the elephant is personal for me.  A little over a year ago I spent 3 months in southern Africa.  I saw plenty of elephants, and observed their behavior sometimes for hours at a time.  Elephants once roamed across Africa, but now they are largely limited to a few sanctuaries: the national parks.

A bull African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Botswana's Okavango Delta begins a short charge, just to make sure we are paying attention.

A bull African elephant in Botswana’s Okavango Delta bluff-charges, just to make sure we’re paying attention.

But even in the parks elephants are under constant attack.  They have always been poached of course, but recently the slaughter has increased in intensity.  There are several factors at work here.  The most important is the increasing price for ivory in SE Asia.  For example, the Philippines is a big consumer of ivory where it is shaped into religious icons.  Talk about a sad irony!  The unusually hard ivory of the forest elephant of western Africa is particularly prized.

Ivory where it belongs, attached to an African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Botswana's Okavango Delta.

Ivory where it belongs, attached to an African elephant in Botswana’s Okavango Delta.

A large African elephant (Loxodonta africana) shows off his prehensile trunk at a waterhole in Namibia's Etosha National Park.

A large African elephant, fresh from a mudbath, shows off his prehensile trunk at a waterhole in Namibia’s Etosha National Park.

Now since these parks are poorly patrolled, and because they aren’t very far from hotbeds of Islamic extremism such as Mali, the slaughter is on a massive scale.  Parties of men, equipped with high-powered weapons and often flown in by helicopter, have been recently wiping out whole herds: mothers with their babies included.  I can’t bring myself to post pictures of the dead elephants; it’s just too upsetting.  You can easily find them on the web.

An apparent assignation between two African elephants (Loxodonta africana) beneath a tree on the banks of the Chobe River, Botswana.

An apparent assignation between two African elephants beneath a tree on the banks of the Chobe River, Botswana.

It’s all done for money of course.  The sight of these butchered elephants hits most people like a punch in the gut.  At this pace, we will lose the forest elephant very soon.  The larger African elephants of eastern and southern Africa are also being poached in record numbers.  Complicating all this is that countries like Kenya are hoarding their ivory, collected from legal culling operations.  That just drives up the price of course.  Even parks like Kruger in South Africa are losing elephants (and rhinos).  I visited this park and was very impressed by the high, electrified fence encircling the huge park.  But this doesn’t stop poachers.

A partial screen of grasses allows a close approach to a grazing African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Botswana's Okavango Delta.

A partial screen of grasses allows a close approach to a grazing African elephant in Botswana’s Okavango Delta.

Given the amount of corruption in Africa, I believe that ivory smuggling is very difficult to stop.  I also believe that convincing people to stop buying ivory, while very worthwhile, will never make a difference in time to save the species.  I believe strongly that a two-pronged approach is necessary.  First, attempt to lower the price by forcing Kenya and other countries with abundant localized populations in their parks to continue culling the herds and releasing that ivory on the market.  The second step, which is most important, is to use high tech weaponry to kill every single poacher in these teams.

A large bull African elephant challenges any intruder to his piece of the Okavango Delta in Botswana.

A large bull African elephant challenges any intruder to his piece of the Okavango Delta in Botswana.

We should use armed drones (which are being brought home as the U.S. gets out of their ill-thought-out conflicts) to go after these criminals.  After a time, and in conjunction with satellite surveillance, we should be able to get them before they do their dirty business.  We should get them coming out if we fail to get them going in.  I think, despite the potential of a big payout, that knowing they have a better than even chance of dying during the attempt will keep potential poachers from signing up.

An African elephant blocks the main channel in the Okavango River in Botswana.

An African elephant blocks the main channel in the Okavango River in Botswana.

It’s important to kill every single person involved in a poaching attempt.  If we approach this like we approached the war in Iraq, we should be able to make these better than even odds a reality.  I strongly believe that funding for this should come from the U.S. and Britain, along with a few other countries, big donors and even NGOs.  Money from western governments should come directly out of the aid budget for Africa (so it does not add to the deficit).

An African elephant (Loxodonta africana) reaches into the trees for succulent fruit, on the Chobe River bank in Botswana.

An African elephant reaches into the trees for succulent fruit, on the Chobe River bank in Botswana.

I have seen firsthand how intelligent, how caring, and how incredibly awesome these creatures are.  I really want to help save elephants, as well as rhinos.  If I can make that happen, you will see me blogging from Africa in the future.  I do not want to see these magnificent beings disappear forever.  I really don’t.

A large female African elephant shades her baby from the hot direct sun during the hottest days of the year in Botswana's Chobe National Park.

A large female African elephant shades her baby from the hot direct sun during the hottest days of the year in Botswana’s Chobe National Park.

Botswana   Leave a comment

A young male Nile crocodile basks on the banks of the Chobe River in northeast Botswana.

When travelers finally reach Maun, jumping-off point for safaris in Botswana, they are understandably eager to visit the Okavango Delta and its bordering reserves to the north.  But a great option if you have the time are the Kalahari and other areas to the south and east.  A visit to “the Pans” (Makgadikgadi and Nxai Pans) is easy to combine with the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, and this will expose you to ecosystems that could not be more different from the Okavango’s wetlands.  Of course, there are plenty of guided options here.  Any internet search will turn up places like Jack’s Camp, a fly-in camp deep in the Kalahari that includes guided walks with the San people (less correctly called Bushmen).  But Jack’s is pretty expensive.

An African hornbill perches over my campsite at Makgadikgadi Pans National Park in Botswana.

Cheaper and easier is simply traveling by bus to Gansi (pronounced Hansi), a center for San culture southwest of Maun.  Use one of the more moderately priced lodges here (such as the excellent Grasslands) as a base to tour the Kalahari in the company of San who will show you their unique ways tracking and survival.  There are, as far as I know, no San remaining in the Kalahari who live as their ancestors did.  But many groups now residing in or near Gansi are only a decade or less removed from a hunter-gatherer existence.  Even if you don’t walk with the San, traveling through any area south of Maun means you will overhear the characteristic “click” language of Botswana’s Kalahari natives.  I listened for a long time to a group gathered by a campfire; after a while it began to seem normal.

It is arguably easier to visit the Kalahari (as well as the Pans) by simply driving yourself.  If you can share with two or three other travelers, this might be the cheapest option as well.  Arrange to rent a 4×4 ahead of time, or by visiting the rental car company offices across the road from the Maun Airport once you’ve arrived.  You can either rent a vehicle with camping equipment, or rent what you need from Kalahari Kanvas, located a couple hundred meters down the road that runs along the airstrip.  Be sure to rent or buy at least two 5-gallon containers, one for water and one for petrol or diesel.  Both fresh water and fuel are in very short supply away from major towns in Botswana (not kidding, you will run out of gas on a lonely road if you do not bring at least one 5-gallon can).  I rented a 4×4 Toyota Hilux pickup.  It ran about $125/day, but was probably the toughest 4×4 I’ve ever driven.

Driving east from Maun on an empty and excellent paved road, you first come  to Nxai Pan, with its gorgeous open landscapes and prides of lion.  There are campsites and driving loops, and it’s famous for its gorgeous groves of baobab trees.  Travel a bit further east, then drive south of the highway on 4×4 tracks across the Makgadikgadi Pans to camp amidst herds of migrating zebra (end of dry season in November) elephant, antelope and other animals.  You are truly getting off the beaten track in Africa if you do this.  A planned safari in a high-end lodge will not come anywhere near this kind of experience, and will cost you much more besides.

Not far south of the Pans lies the enormous Central Kalahari Game Reserve.  I entered from the east.  Friendly staff at the entrance station are happy to help you plan a camping loop in the reserve.  It is very different visiting this reserve at the end of the dry season, as I did in November, then it is if you go at the end of the wet season in March or April.  I was there at the hottest time of the year, when temperatures regularly top 100oF.  But…it’s a dry heat.  The grass is lower at this time of year, and wildlife is drawn to the few artificial waterholes.  So the wildlife is easier to spot.  But the green season has much to recommend it, including more beautiful landscape photo compositions along with the cooler temperatures.

Roads in the Kalahari are sandy but negotiable in a 4×4.  Remember to deflate your tires BEFORE you get fully buried in sand, and you should have little problem.  It’s worth renting a small compressor at Kalahari Kanvas to re-inflate your tires once you’re back on hard surfaces.  Also, in brushy areas approaching the Reserve, stop and pick up some firewood.  You’ll need it to cook with and to keep the animals away from your camp during the nights.  Don’t stop inside the reserve and collect firewood.  This is not because of regulations.  Simply put, you do not want to be walking around, stooping and picking up firewood, in the domain of Kalahari lions.  Speaking of brush, if you head here in the green season, expect to have to stop frequently to brush off the seeds and plant debris from your front grill.  If you don’t, you are asking to overheat.

A large female African elephant shades her baby from the direct sun during the hottest time of year in Botswana’s Chobe National Park.

 

Soon after entering the Kalahari Reserve, I saw a large lion and two lionesses (image below) in Deception Valley, a beautiful expanse of grassland.  They were lying about as lions do during daytime.  I also saw gemsbok, giraffe and springbok, along with many interesting birds.  For example, the Kori bustard is a large bird that tends to freak you out with its strange sidelong gaze as it strides purposefully through the tall grass.   I camped near Leopard Pan, alone except for hyena calling nearby.  These camps are very simple, which is to my liking.  They are quite different from camps in South Africa or Namibia, which even have restaurants and swimming  pools.  Here in the Kalahari, you get a bucket shower (if you’ve brought an extra 5-gallon jug) and a fire ring.  Sometimes there’s a picnic table (but rent a folding table and chairs just the same).  You will come to look forward to the bucket shower.  You simply fill the bucket, then hoist it on ropes to its position above your head.  Then you simply open the shower head and let gravity do the work.  So refreshing after a long hot day, believe me.

A lioness nudges her lion with not much success in rousing him. Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana.

 

A gemsbok, or oryx, gets a drink at a water hole in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana.

Traveling through the Reserve, seeing only a few other vehicles in 3 days, feeling very free and self-reliant, camping out amongst the brilliant Kalahari stars, I felt fully immersed in the great emptiness of untamed Africa.  I saw enough animals to keep me in neck-swivel mode while driving the rough roads.  There is a definite skill to be developed by anyone considering a self-drive safari in Africa, to keep your attention on the narrow track yet be able to spot wildlife.  I was mostly alone, wandering the dry landscape, spotting mirages and the long horns of gemsbok, always alert for the large, dark-maned Kalahari lion.

A more relaxing way to go about wildlife watching in the Kalahari is to park at a waterhole (which is filled by a nearby well & pump).  I sat for over an hour at a waterhole near Leopard Pan, watching a pair of jackals foraging.  I was rewarded when a herd of gemsbok showed up.  This antelope species, with its enormous horns, is supremely adapted to desert life.  The big ears, for example, aren’t only for hearing.  As with elephant ears, the animal rids itself of heat using the thin, floppy ears, which have abundant blood vessels near the cooler surface.

On my last day in the Kalahari, I passed several giraffes that were passing the heat of the day under some acacias next to the road.  When I rolled down the window and craned my neck upwards to get a better look and photograph them, one curious male slowly bent his long neck downwards to me.

 

 

A giraffe’s tongue is a wonder of nature.

He used his long tongue to reach up to his nose and gave several long licks.  Then, peering down at me with those huge eyes, he gave me a little smile.  I did not know before this that giraffe mouths commonly take on this expression, and it solidified the giraffe’s position as my favorite African animal.  I often think back on that moment, and it speaks to me of this heart of southern Africa.

If you have even more time, you can drive northeast from Maun, to the Savute.   It lies within the Chobe National Park, and has a reputation for abundant wildlife.  I saw a great variety of animals, but no cats, sadly.  The elephant were super-abundant  however.  The Savute Channel flows now nearly year-round because the pancake-flat land of this region has been slowly tilting, resulting in water from the Caprivi area in nearby Namibia flowing down to Savute.  This has also brought much more water to the Okavango Delta itself.

The dry season being at its peak when I visited, elephant had been showing up in numbers at Savute  from drier areas in the region.  Some had walked hundreds of kilometers to get to lifegiving water.  And yet, I soon began to notice many elephant carcasses, and at the campsite I asked a guide why elephants were dying with all this water and grass around.  He told me his theory, which I agree with.  The dead were made up almost entirely of young elephants.  Not babies – teenagers.  They had died, the guide said, when they drank too much water.

 

 

This reminded me of the problems we humans often have when we drink too much water.  If you drink too much without taking in electrolytes (i.e., eating), you risk a condition called  hyponatremia.   This causes your cells literally to burst, with death not far behind.  Maybe this had happened to the young elephants.  The adults are too smart to do this, and they keep their babies from overindulging.  But teenagers without adult supervision could easily get carried away when they first arrive, parched from their long trek to water.  It was quite sad, and reminded me of the trials and hardships inherent in surviving the African bush.

But despite the heat, the harshness of the terrain, the eat or be eaten nature of genuine safari experience, northern Botswana, with its diverse population and surrounding wonders, welcomes all those who make the long trek there with big curious eyes and a shy smile.

A giraffe in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana, appears to smile at me (but is merely curious).

Okavango Delta   Leave a comment

Botswana’s Okavango Delta is a beautiful and rich water-world.

During my recent trip to Africa, I had been going back and forth about visiting Botswana’s famous Okavango Delta.  It has a reputation for being expensive, so I was hesitant, worrying that I might blow my budget.  But I listened to my inner self, which had direct access to those many dreams of Africa, where I floated in a dugout canoe past prides of lion and herds of elephant and giraffe.  Finally giving in to this voice, I headed there from Livingstone (Victoria Falls) in Zambia.  It is a short bus trip from here over to Kasane, in the northeast corner of Botswana.  The river here is superb for watching wildlife.  Elephant and crocs (image above) grow to enormous sizes on the rich watered grasslands.  So after doing a boat cruise on the Chobe, I flew to Maun, the gateway to the Okavango Delta.

I learned when I visited that one does not have to empty her wallet when she visits Botswana.  There are few budget options compared with other places, but a few turned out to be more than enough.  I did end up spending more than I wanted, primarily because I decided to rent a 4×4 and head off on my own for a week.  But that still cost me much less than a guided trip through the same areas would have cost me.  I will focus on the Delta in this post, than branch out into nearby sights next time.

A bull African elephant in Botswana’s Okavango Delta begins a short charge, just to make sure we are paying attention.

In the above image, I was in a boat on one of the many channels through the Delta.  The elephant suddenly became annoyed at our close presence, so he false-charged.  We actually got splashed by him, as the guide quickly gunned the motor to add some distance.  All of these images are available to download (for license or printing yourself), or you can purchase directly from my website (just click an image).  You can buy a beautiful, large print, either framed or unframed, made with high-quality archival papers and inks.  These are all high quality images as you can see, made by a pro.  If on any of my blog posts you click on an image and it doesn’t take you to my website, that means you are welcome to use those images, but for personal use only please.  Thanks a bunch, and enjoy the rest of the article below!

Maun & The Okavango

“It’s the Maun magic” said the young bush pilot simply, and drained the rest of his beer in one gulp. I peered more closely at his profile as he tilted the glass. I doubted that he was old enough to drink, let alone fly a bush plane. He had offered the catchy phrase when I brought up the fact that my planned departure from Maun kept being delayed by one thing after another.   Now here I was in the same bar I had landed on my first night here, having spent the past week and a half exploring the Okavango Delta by boat and the Central Kalahari & Savute by rented 4×4.  Shaking my  head, I wondered how yet another day had passed while doing absolutely nothing about leaving.   The pilot’s words began to make sense.  There did seem to be a magnetic quality to this town in northern Botswana.

A common bird along Africa’s waterways, the darter is also known as the “snake bird” because of its sinuous neck.

Of course, there are real, non-magical reasons to linger a bit longer in Maun.  Simply put, this town and its surroundings are too dynamic and fun, its inhabitants too fascinating, to pass through in a rush. From boating and camping in the Okavango Delta, to flightseeing over herds of elephant and zebra, to hiking amongst world-renowned rock art in the Tsodilo Hills, Maun offers itself up as Southern Africa’s base camp par excellence.  And because of its location on the doorstep of some of Africa’s most pristine and beautiful safari country, Maun attracts more than its share of intriguing and entertaining characters from all over the world. I thought it might be this last fact as much as the natural wonders that was keeping me here much longer than I had planned.

The bush pilot sitting next to me in the bar was a perfect example of Maun’s dynamic population.  For such a young guy he had some great stories to tell. Maun has one of the world’s busiest bush plane airfields, and its pilots are some of the world’s youngest.  Most of them are from South Africa, which in part explains their hard-drinking, wise-cracking swagger.  This delay in Maun, I decided, was not at all a waste of time. In fact, it was a treat, not in small part because I love being an observer of human behavior.

I listened as the pilot told of landing his plane and as he tried to taxi having a large bull elephant emerge from the bush to express its displeasure at the intrusion.  Throughout his story the young man’s eyes drifted over to make sure a certain blonde tourist from Germany was listening.  I was reminded of my days in Alaska, when I too was barely 20 and eager to test myself in a similarly wild and often dangerous land.

There are numerous tour companies in Maun which are happy to arrange well-priced, escorted safaris to the road-accessible destinations such as Moremi Game Reserve and Nxai Pan (the x in words here signifies the characteristic click in the language of local San people).  The lodges, which are strung out along the river west of the airport, can either offer trips of their own or arrange one with a local operator.  As always, it pays to shop around, not only for price, but also to find the best group size, length of trip and departure day, among other things.

In the Okavango, roads are nearly nonexistent, except where the Moremi Reserve touches the Delta in the southeast.  Thus choices are limited to the expensive but excellent all-inclusive camps accessible by air, or the few budget-oriented camping safaris which use boats to transport tourists into the Delta.  I chose the latter, I don’t mind saying for reasons of budget.  But during the trip I saw some of the tour boats belonging to the big, expensive lodges.  These were bigger craft, in some cases relatively crowded, tourists with drinks in hand – that is definitely not my style.

Arguably the most beautiful of the many kingfishers found in the Okavango Delta is the tiny malachite kingfisher.

I preferred our small group of 4, including the guide/boatman.  Our boat, being smaller, was able to drift into places the bigger boats couldn’t maneuver into.  In one case we glided right up on a tiny brilliant-blue malachite kingfisher (image left).  One thing to consider when deciding on a trip is what you give up at lodges in return for the obvious comforts. One night I woke sometime after 2 a.m., and poked my head out of the tent to see a glorious moon-set.  I felt relatively safe from animals, with our closely-spaced tents circling a still-glowing campfire.  So I set up my tripod just outside the tent, capturing a magical interplay of moonlight and clouds, all the while listening to the mysterious sounds of the African bush at night.  The picture is below.

Something like this may be possible in a lodge environment, but when you’re camping these sorts of experiences are a given.   In the end, you will have a great experience whichever type of trip you decide upon.  It’s worth remembering there is a choice, and your own style and preferences (not just budget) should always dictate which way you go.  Think carefully whether you actually need the luxury of an expensive lodge.  Often people assume that they will get a better safari experience if they spend the money on a high-end lodge or camp.  They are convinced they will see more animals, get closer to them, etc.  Nearly always, it is not this you are paying extra for, but that fluffy towel, the comfy chairs and onsite restaurant.

Here in Botswana, like elsewhere in the world, budget-friendly trips (which often involve camping) are usually an option.  But they are not generally advertised in travel magazines, or even on the internet.  And so you must be willing to do some digging, or simply wait until you arrive to arrange things.  Talking to other travelers is the best way to get info. of course, and this can be done beforehand on the internet.  But it is much more reliable to speak to people who have just been to the place you are interested in.  They can give you first-hand information and unvarnished opinions.

The middle of the night in Botswana’s Okavango Delta is mysteriously beautiful in the light of a setting moon.

The Okavango Delta is an immensely beautiful landscape, a waterworld where you can boat and camp, take a mokoro (dugout canoe) ride, visit villages and even party in Maun.  It has an energy all its own, and you will most certainly experience the “magic” of Maun and the Okavango if you choose to come this way.  I am certainly happy that I did.  The picture below is of another beautiful red sunset, taken from a boat in the Okavango heading back to camp.

Birds return to their roosts as the sun goes down over the Okavango Delta in Botswana.

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