Archive for February 2017

Wordless Wednesday: Evening on the Columbia River   1 comment

Foto Talk: Alternate Versions, Part II   2 comments

I've posted this image before: dawn at Capitol Reef National Park, Utah.

I’ve posted this image before: dawn at Capitol Reef National Park, Utah.

This is the second of three parts on creating alternate versions of the same basic image.  Definitely check out Part I; these are meant to go together.  Alternate versions are not totally different compositions, or one shot looking one direction and one the other.  They are those images you may group together on the screen to review and compare.

Creating alternate versions can be as simple as shooting one horizontal and one vertical.  Or it could be as complicated as shooting a dozen versions all with different combinations of variables.  And speaking of those variables, let’s pick up where we left off last time and look at more ways to vary a landscape image.

More Variables

  • Focal Length.  Changing focal length by a lot changes the whole image, by a lot.  But we’re talking about alternate versions of the same image, so think zooming in or out by only modest amounts.  The idea is to keep the main elements of the scene the same but perhaps include or exclude subsidiary elements.  It’s similar in some ways to moving toward or away from the foreground, but although it’s often mistakenly thought that the two are identical, they will yield a different look.
A wider, shorter focal-length version of the above scene, with the fence occupying a much more important position.

A wider version of the above scene.  In addition to shorter focal length, I lowered the point of view, putting the fence in a more prominent position and including more sky.  The light is different too, as it was captured after sunrise.

  • Depth of Field (DOF).  Varying how much of the scene is in focus is something many people don’t consider for landscapes.  Most of us always try for the maximum, sharp from front to back.  But sometimes it’s interesting to limit depth of field for a shot or two after you get the standard landscape.  If you are limiting DOF you may also vary the place where you are focusing.  For maximum DOF you really don’t have much choice for point of focus; that is, there is a ‘right’ place to focus (the hyperfocal distance).
  • Exposure Time.  Another under-appreciated variable.  For example most people get in the habit of shooting waterfalls in one way, using long exposure to smooth the water.  Even when shooting this way you can get quite different looks and textures if you vary that longer exposure.  Another example: changing shutter speed when there are moving clouds can totally change the look of the sky.  Whenever there are elements moving in your frame, changing exposure time will give a different look.
Because of a somewhat dangerous position, I only had time for two versions of this spring along Oregon's Hood River. This vertical has the longer exposure time. 28 mm., 6 sec. @ f/11, ISO 50.

Because of a somewhat dangerous position, I only had time for two versions of this spring along Oregon’s Hood River. This vertical has the longer exposure time. 28 mm., 6 sec. @ f/11, ISO 50.

For the horizontal I went with a relatively short exposure for more detail in the water. 24 mm., 0.8 sec. @ f/11, ISO 50.

For the horizontal I went with a relatively short exposure for more detail in the water. 24 mm., 0.8 sec. @ f/11, ISO 50.

  • Light.  This variable is a bit different than the others.  You don’t have nearly as much control on light as you do the others.  But you do have some.  The classic example is that photographer who shoots the sun as it’s setting.  Then after it disappears below the horizon you look over and they’re packing up, thus missing out on alternate shots under different light.  Another example:  you may like a composition so much that you go out to shoot it both at sunset and sunrise.  If it’s close to home you might shoot it in golden autumn light, crystalline winter light and bright spring or summer light.

There are two main points I want to make.  One is that there are always options and usually enough time to get at least a vertical if not other alternate versions of the same scene.  And so I recommend trying to do at least two versions of each landscape (a vertical and horizontal).  I also recommend that while you’re out shooting, at least initially, you think about which variables you changed and, more importantly, why.  As you become more experienced you’ll shoot alternate versions more or less unconsciously.

Next week we’ll conclude with some thoughts on post-shot review and processing of alternate versions.  Thanks very much for checking in this week.  Have a great weekend and happy shooting!

Sometimes you only have a few seconds to get a single shot. That was the case as I hurried to board a ferry. This is a traditional fishing vessel along the coast of Burma (Myanmar).

Sometimes you only have a few seconds to get a single shot. That was the case as I hurried to board a ferry. This is a traditional fishing vessel along the coast of Burma (Myanmar).

Friday Foto Talk: Alternate Compositions of the Same Image   2 comments

Dawn and part of a frozen waterfall in Zion National Park.

Dawn and part of a frozen waterfall in Zion National Park.  16 mm., 1.6 sec. @ f/11, ISO 100

Sometimes you have just one opportunity to get a shot.  You have to whip that camera up and shoot.  If you’re not ready the moment is gone.  But more often there is time to capture different versions of the same subject.  Since landscape photography is so applicable to this, and because I do a lot of it (I’m not alone!), I’m going to use landscape photography to illustrate ways to create alternate versions of an image.

There are several main ways to vary a landscape shot.  Let’s look at those that change the composition but keep the same main elements of the scene the same.

  • Format.  Changing between horizontal (or landscape) and vertical (portrait) formats is the easiest way to create alternate versions of an image.  Normally a vertical emphasizes the height of things like trees and mountains.  It can also give a greater sense of depth.  Horizontals emphasize a sense of space and can lend a serene feel to a landscape.  I usually try to get both unless the picture definitely lends itself to one or the other.
  • Point of View.  Point of view (POV) can be changed in many ways.  I did a mini-series on POV that explores this very important subject.  One of the most common ways to vary POV is by changing camera height.  Depending on how close the foreground is, changing height will also change the distance to that foreground, which can greatly change the look of an image.
Vertical of the image at top. I lowered POV, got closer to the foreground and thus emphasized the ice and sandstone while reducing the apparent size and importance of the background mountains and sky.

Vertical of the image at top. I lowered POV, got closer to the foreground and thus emphasized the ice and sandstone while reducing the apparent size and importance of the background mountains and sky.  16 mm., 1.3 sec. @ f/11, ISO 100.

  • Proportion of Sky vs. Land.  Changing POV in turn can change this variable.  It involves changing the relative amount of sky vs. land in the image, a very common thing for landscapers to do.  For example, simply tilting the camera down or shortening your tripod legs takes you from an image dominated by sky to one dominated by the landscape below.  The possible variants are nearly endless.  For example you can change from nearly fifty-fifty to almost all land with just a sliver of sky.  You could even shoot with the horizon in the middle, but that works well only in certain situations.
  • Distance from Subject/Foreground.  As long as you don’t exclude a main element (in which case it’s a different picture), you can change the feel by simply moving closer to or further from the closest element in the frame.  Try doing this without changing any of the variables above.  It’s hard to do, isn’t it?
Catching a rainbow at Vista House in Oregon's Columbia River Gorge.

A rainbow and a tall fir tree frame Vista House in Oregon’s Columbia River Gorge.  35 mm., 0.4 sec. @ f/11, ISO 100.

As just mentioned it can be tough to change just a single variable when you’re taking multiple shots of the same thing.  Of course you don’t have to limit yourself to one variable.  And you shouldn’t.  We’re not doing science experiments, we’re shooting pictures.  But if you’re curious and want to see more clearly what the effects of changing a certain variable look like, go ahead and control the other variables.  Play scientist for awhile.

Next time we’ll look at a few other variables you can change to create alternate versions of your landscape images.  Thanks for reading.  Have a fun weekend, one filled with laughter and plenty of pictures!

Which version do you like, this horizontal or the vertical above?  By changing format & using a slightly longer focal length, the tree and top of the rainbow are cropped off.  The light has also changed slightly.  50 mm., 0.5 sec. @ f/13, ISO 100.

 

Friday Foto Talk: Video & Macro   2 comments

This series on casual video for the still photographer has mostly stuck to the basics.  I’ve done that to show how easy it is to start shooting video.  None of these videos have been edited either.  I want to head off the excuse that some people use, that they have no time to learn a whole new editing program.  Untold numbers of people shoot video with their phones.  My goal is to get my fellow still photographers to create videos when the mood strikes, but to do them with intention and care.

I’ve also stayed away from stuff like time-lapse and slow-motion.  These are rather faddish in my opinion, but speaking objectively, they are sub-areas of nature videography that require a specific focus.  Time-lapses, for instance, are actually a series of still shots.  While you do produce a video of sorts, the mood is often disjointed.  Also there is no real-time, native sound.  Creating a time-lapse is rather boring in practice, and it doesn’t really help you develop field video recording skills.

Of course there is nothing wrong with timelapse or any other type of video.  But I believe that when you’re first getting into video, or any genre within the photography realm, it’s best to start simply.  Go out and do it before you commit to creating a final (shareable) product.  So many of us love what we see online so much that we just have to go off and create that very thing.  Or something that looks just like it.  It’s a completely understandable impulse.

Consider taking a more organic approach.  See if you enjoy the process of creating it first before worrying about results.  This way you’ll slowly develop your own style, eventually creating something that is uniquely yours rather than imitative.  By the way, I don’t consider myself such a great artist.  But I do have a firm idea of the way to get there!

I know this is the era of instant gratification, but it’s important to be patient.  Learn to enjoy the process before you expect to create something you can be proud of.  High expectations are fine, but don’t impose too-short a timeline.  That will only cause unnecessary stress.  Even a mild amount of anxiety can sabotage the creative process.

Video & Focal Length

Now let’s get to it!  One of the best things about shooting video with a DSLR (or mirrorless) camera is the ability to use a variety of lenses.  As I mentioned in an earlier post on the basics, when you’re starting out it’s useful to stick with a medium focal length lens.  If you have a 50 mm. lens you’re in luck; it’s perfect for video.  Otherwise use a medium zoom and stay 10 or 15 mm of 50.  Reason is to avoid the distortion you get with wide angles, and the shakiness that can happen with long focal lengths.

Once you’re comfortable doing videos at medium focal lengths, you’ll naturally want to try different lenses.  But this post isn’t about using telephotos for wildlife or wide-angles for landscapes.  It’s about one of the most fun ways to shoot video: macro and close-up!  In order to view these videos click on the title at top-left first, then click the play button.

By the way, I didn’t mean to cut short the video of the dung beetles below.  A black rhino had suddenly appeared between my rental car and where I was lying on the ground.  So I had to stop and figure out how to avoid being charged!

Macro Video ~ Tips

  • Try to pick subjects that stay in one place.  You can expand on this once you get some practice.  Either way you should observe your subject for a time before you come up with a plan.  For example in the video above I watched those beetles in Africa roll a couple dung balls from point A to point B before I followed along shooting the clip.  That delay may have saved me, as I could have been regarded as a threat if I hadn’t been lying down!
  • Use a tripod.  Just as with macro still photography, a tripod is nearly essential.  For one thing, most macro lenses have fairly long effective focal lengths.  Hand-holding is hard to do without introducing jumpiness.  Also, whether you use a macro lens or attachments like extension tubes or close-up filters, depth of field will be quite narrow.  Provided you choose a suitable subject, you have a better chance of keeping things in focus when you’re on a tripod.
  • Speaking of focus, choose a point of view and composition that makes it easier to keep the subject in focus without having to twist the focus ring.  “Pulling” or “following” focus as it is called, is a skill that takes awhile to master.  A subject that moves across the frame, for example, is easier to keep in focus than one that moves toward or away from you.
  • Watch for repetitive or cyclical behaviour.  Many times, when observing nature, you’ll notice that a critter will keep repeating its actions, or it might circle back to where it has been before.  If you set up on a tripod focused in on that spot, all you need to do is watch and wait, ready to press record.  For the video below the dragon flies were zipping around much too quickly for me to follow.  So I simply watched one for awhile and noticed her returning to a nearby perch, spreading her wings like they do.  I focused on her first, using manual focus (which is best for video).  Then next time back, since she alighted in exactly the same spot, I shot the clip.

 

  • Limit motions.  By using the approach just mentioned, pointing at a spot and waiting for the critter to arrive, you’ll be forced to stay put.  Insects and other small critters tend to get used to your presence more quickly than bigger animals, but it’s still helpful to keep still.  Of course moving around is necessary for any good photography.  But macro shooting, still or video, goes much more smoothly when movement is limited, planned out and deliberate.
  • Look for subtle subjects too.  Macro video isn’t just about insects.  For example, flowers or other interesting macro subjects can be great targets for video when light is rapidly changing as clouds move quickly across the sky.   Movements from wind can also make videos worth a try.
  • Finally, don’t limit yourself to true macro.  Do close-up videos with other lenses.  If you have a lens that offers a “macro” setting, you may be able, depending on subject, to focus close enough to get that intimate feel of macro.  Do you know the closest that each of your lenses will focus?  You should.  Wide-angle lenses often focus quite closely.  They also enable you to hand-hold the camera with less chance of shakiness.  For the video below I had to get my feet wet to move smoothly through the scene.  At the end of the clip is a bonus: my little buddy Charl (RIP) watches from the bridge.  No way was he getting his little feet wet!

That’s all for now.  If you haven’t done so, try a macro video or two.  If you have, let us know what you thought.  Are there any tips I forgot?  Thanks for reading and have a fantastically fun weekend!

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