Recently I spent a night and day at Hanford Reach National Monument in Washington. You may have heard of Hanford. It is an enormous piece of semi-arid steppe in the eastern part of the state along the Columbia River used by the U.S. Department of Energy for nuclear purposes. But we’re not talking energy here. This is a little story (or travel post if you will) about how an idea of questionable moral foundation accidentally becomes a brilliant idea.
In the early 1940s, during World War II, the Federal Government came to this mostly empty part of Washington with an ultimatum. They told the residents of the small town of White Bluffs, along with scattered ranchers and farmers in the region that they could support their country’s war effort by leaving their homes within 30 days. The simple folk of eastern Washington didn’t know it but the Manhattan Project was getting started.
The Feds were interested in Hanford because it was remote, wide-open and with endless supplies of fresh water. That last requirement was especially important because their goal was to do what Iran is trying to do more than 70 years later: enrich plutonium to make an atomic bomb. They also used Oak Ridge, Tennessee and Los Alamos, New Mexico (where the bomb was finally assembled and tested).
But Hanford was by far the largest site. That’s not because they needed all the space. Actually the main development would take place in a relatively small area at the center of the nearly 600 square-mile site. A few nuclear reactors were scattered along nearer the river, close to much-needed water to cool the reactors. The enrichment took place in the center with plenty of buffer space..just in case.
Nowadays nothing much happens at Hanford. Intense cleanup efforts have been partially successful, although there are fears of groundwater contamination miles from the site. But along the Columbia River things are going along quietly as they have been since the U.S. government came here.
This is the longest free-flowing stretch of the Columbia above tide-water. No farming or ranching has taken place since 1943. So the quality of the habitat (what’s called shrub- or bunchgrass-steppe) is exceptional. And it’s all because of the Manhattan Project, of all things. Also it didn’t hurt that President Clinton in 2000 protected it as the Hanford Reach National Monument.
By the way, in 1996 the remains of an ancient hunter (Kennewick Man) was found eroding out of the river bank near the Reach. The native tribes fought with Federal scientists to acquire and re-bury the remains in accordance with the law. But scientists wanted to study the well-preserved skeleton to learn something about the earliest Americans. The Feds won in court because it was unclear at that time if he was even related to modern tribes. His skull indicated different looks. But in 2015 DNA evidence pointed to the fact that Kennewick Man was most closely related to the native tribes of today. If the tribes are still interested (which I’m assuming they are), all they need to do is take it back to court and I’m sure the decision will be reversed so that he may be reburied by his descendants.
There really isn’t too much to see here, but maybe that’s the point. Much of it is off limits for protection of nesting birds and native vegetation. You can simply drive along the river, stopping at the few places where there is public access. Or if you really want to experience it you can float a canoe or kayak down the river. From White Bluffs viewpoint you can walk or bicycle along a closed section of roadway. Whatever you do and however long you stay, you’ll enjoy the quiet, wide open spaces.
What started off as a place to plan and build a device that would kill 200,000 people in Japan, a place that began the age when humans are able to destroy large parts of the planet, is now a windswept and pristine grassland, where a river that is largely dammed and tamed gets to just be itself. That’s what I call a beautiful accident. Or you could say “every dark cloud has a silver lining”. Thanks for reading!