How did all of this come to be? I mean everything around us. Have you looked out into a deep inky-starry sky lately? Have you tried, actually tried, to comprehend the distances involved, the multitude of galaxies and star systems? Two things have become obvious: (1) a multitude of planets exist, many likely to host life; and (2) the universe, in the way it works, is fine-tuned to be friendly towards the emergence of life. This leads many to the idea that life might not be just an accident. In thinking about the universe’s ultimate origins, life just might be the one small feature of the universe that is too important to ignore.
To date, physicists have been in charge of figuring out the origin and make-up of the universe. If you knew any physicists in college, or even since then (highly unlikely), you know how ridiculous that notion is. Unless the universe is nearly devoid of life, an assumption that is becoming more and more unlikely as time goes on, then we need more than just quantum physicists to answer the ultimate questions.
To begin with, think of it this way. Our universe is just under 14 billion years old. That is the quite precisely dated age of the Big Bang. There is a small chance that this age is in error, but I wouldn’t hold out much hope that the error is 14 billion minus 6000 years! The universe (and Earth) are ancient, incredibly ancient. A lot has taken place already. But there is much much more to come. All evidence points to this thing going on for a long time to come. Where are we headed? That is a question just as important as the origin question, and its answer could help shed light on why we are here.
It’s obvious now that our universe began with a great explosion of space-time itself (the Big Bang) and has been expanding ever since. The rate of the expansion has apparently not been constant. It has been speeding up of late, or that is the current best explanation for astronomical observations of stellar explosions in deep space.
I’m taking as a given that we MUST eventually discover how all of this came to be, where it is going, how it will end, and (most importantly) why. At least we must continue to try. Those who put their faith in God, in the Bible, the Koran or Book of Mormon, even these people will be enriched if and when we discover the true nature of things. They might not admit it publicly, but they will be enriched along with the rest of us.
There is nothing in astronomy thus far that contradicts the idea of a creator. We are having some trouble describing the situation at the precise moment of the Big Bang (we can only describe events AFTER the Big Bang). But even if we do, hints of higher levels of reality, a Multiverse (see below) means it all could have been set in motion by a creator long before “our” big bang. Now be honest. When you read the word “creator”, you had in mind an image. I’m guessing it was an image derived from childhood religious teachings. But notice I didn’t capitalize the word. That’s because a creator, which let’s be honest is not at all required for this universe to have come into being, could indeed be someone entirely different than our traditional image of God.
If you know something about quantum theory, you might have heard of virtual particles. These are actually physical phenomena that pop into being from nothing, and then pop right back out of existence. In fact, some scientists believe that the universe is speeding up its expansion because of the energy coming from this “restlessness” in the vacuum of space. If you are willing to skip a lot of quantum physics and general cosmology in between, you can move to the extreme case of a universe popping into being from nothing. In other words, you may be part of a universe that came into existence from nothing, with no help from anything but the inherent instability of truly empty space. No creator, or Creator, is required.
The basic problem with applying quantum theory to the universe as a whole is, as it has been for closing on a hundred years now, the difficulty physicists have in applying quantum theory to the world we live in. The word quantum refers to things so tiny that they’re really little packets of energy rather than things with length and breadth. Electrons and protons are two examples of quanta. These are things we will probably never photograph directly (atoms, made up of protons and electrons, have been photographed).
It shouldn’t surprise anyone that we haven’t had much luck so far taking a theory that describes the world of electrons and protons and applying it to things that are infinitely more huge like a person, let alone something as vast as a universe. Things like rivers and rocks, elephants and planets, stars and nebulae are, in essence, emergent properties of some underlying reality. We seem to be stumbling around, using the language of mathematics to look for this underlying reality, and coming up with plenty of possibilities. All the while physicists have not been able to connect any of the myriad possibilities to what has actually emerged from that reality.
Many attempts have been made to meld the submicroscopic world of energy (the universe right after the Big Bang) with the more familiar and much cooler universe of today. We have a well-tested theory of beyond-tiny particles, but we need a theory of stars, planets and bacteria. ( Ha! You thought I was going to say people, but bacteria vastly outnumber us and probably inhabit way more planets than do large animals like us.)
Einstein, Bohr, Wheeler, Feynman, etc., etc., all very smart scientists, have put forth ideas that would extend classical quantum mechanics. But nobody has succeeded in coming up with a well-tested quantum theory of the macroscopic world (a.k.a. quantum theory of gravity). There are theories in science, and then there are Theories. Sometimes, when it is pure mathematics behind the idea, they call it a theorem. Nobody would call relativity, or evolution by natural selection, a theorem, believe me. This ongoing effort is often called the Quest for the Holy Grail of Physics.
So I’ll leave it there for now. I won’t say much more about quantum theory per se, though everything from here on out traces back to it. Instead I’ll jump right on to the idea of multiple universes, or the Multiverse, and how life and the origin of life might fit in. It would be good for anyone interested in science to get up to speed (layperson’s speed that is) on quantum theory. I don’t pretend to understand a lick of the mathematics behind it, so don’t ask me too many questions. But the ideas of entanglement and decoherence, of multiple histories, and even wave function collapse, are all good targets for a bit of googling and (better) actual book-reading. More to come.